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《千面英雄》(The hero with a thousand faces)[MP3]

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  • 摘要:
    发行时间2000年
    语言英语
  • 时间: 2005/11/22 12:08:23 发布 | 2005/11/22 12:08:23 更新
  • 分类: 资料  有声读物 

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中文名千面英雄
英文名The hero with a thousand faces
资源格式MP3
发行时间2000年
地区美国
语言英语
简介

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安全检测软件软件:KV2005
版本号:9.00.607
病毒库日期:2005-11-1
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千面英雄》是坎伯從全世界各地不同民族、不同宗教的無數則流傳的神話中,悉心歸納出來的一個共同的歷險模式。這個模式存在於古今中外不同的文化背景中,卻有著極其驚人的相似性;他的意義在於,無論我們擁有多麼不同的背景、不同的面貌,要想成為戰勝自我宿命的「英雄」,都必須歷經一段召喚→啟程→歷險→歸返的旅程。

內容簡介
〈序〉英雄歷險的當代意義與啟示------朱侃如
《千面英雄》是神話學大師喬瑟夫.坎伯的成名作。自一九四九年發行至今已達百萬冊之多,是本不折不扣的長銷書,神話學的經典作品。它深入影響好幾代學者與青年的成就,並非僥倖得來。根據坎伯的自述,三○年代經濟大恐慌時,他隱居紐約上州鄉間,博覽群籍五年之久。這段他稱為「自由自在,毫無責任牽掛」的日子,不僅為他奠定雄渾的神話學基礎,也直接促成本書的問世。

由於本書是坎伯早期學術出版的代表作,資料的詳盡與分析的深入自然不在話下,而熟悉坎伯其他著作的讀者也會發現,他日後論述神話的角度與風格在本書中已隱然成形。但另一方面,正因為本書是一本學術著作,對一般讀者而言多少會增加些許閱讀上的困難。不過個人以為,讀者如果對全書主旨與架構有初步的了解,則神話故事本身的生動有趣,自然能夠激發閱讀的興致,從而在各類故事的縱橫連繫間,體會出作者全盤架構的整體意義來。當然,這並不表示讀者要完全同意作者的構思,畢竟神話的意義是無窮的,解讀神話的架構也不是絕對的。帶著思辨與批判的心靈閱讀本書,適可深入激盪出本書所欲探討的豐富人生內涵。相信這也是坎伯對讀者的期許。

全書環環相扣而結構嚴謹,首先確立神話主題的一元性,然後在此基礎上漸次開展英雄歷險的各個層面。在個人的層次上,坎伯以召喚→啟程→歷險→歸返為基本架構,適切填入取材自各大宗教文化傳統中的神話故事,對比之餘也有相互補充發揮之處。然而,英雄的歷險並不止於個人的層次,它同時也是宇宙的事件:就此意義而言,整個宇宙發生的循環過程,不僅是英雄歷險效法的模範,也是古今所有英雄終極歸宿之處。因此,英雄在完成身心轉化後的離世,乃是大小宇宙最終必然消解的註腳。最後,坎伯以神話與社會間的互動和今日英雄所扮演的角色作結,評析當代神話與英雄的可能發展。

坎伯認為,英堆是那些能夠了解,接受並進而克服自己命運挑戰的人。放眼各大文化與宗教傳統的文獻,英雄或以史詩般可歌可泣的事蹟留名青史,或在詭譎奇變的冒險歷程中亦莊亦諧的過關斬將,或甚至跨越人類身心的極限而臻於超凡入聖之境,種種類型的英雄事蹟可說是不絕如縷,俯拾即是。但是坎伯認為,英雄個人的命運繫乎更基礎、更廣大的宇宙生命,要成就前者,必須仰賴後者。因此,坎伯把英雄個人發展的心理層面和宇宙發生的形上層面,在理論上連繫起來,這可說是全書的精要所在。根據這個觀點我們可以說,個人對浩瀚宇宙運行之道領會的深淺,直接關係到英雄歷險的成功與否。換言之,我們每個人都是人生旅程上接受試煉的潛在英雄,要完成生命賦予我們的神聖使命,成就英雄的事業,便有待我們對廣大深刻的宇宙生命有所醒悟。



Chapter 1

DEPARTURE

1

The Call to Adventure

"Long long ago, when wishing still could lead to something, there lived a king whose daughters all were beautiful, but the youngest was so beautiful that the sun itself, who had seen so many things, simply marveled every time it shone on her face. Now close to the castle of this king was a great dark forest, and in the forest under an old lime tree a spring, and when the day was very hot, the king's child would go out into the wood and sit on the edge of the cool spring. And to pass the time she would take a golden ball, toss it up and catch it; and this was her favorite plaything.

"Now it so happened one day that the golden ball of the princess did not fall into the little hand lifted into the air, but passed it, bounced on the ground, and rolled directly into the water. The princess followed it with her eyes, but the ball disappeared; and the spring was deep, so deep that the bottom could not be seen. Thereupon she began to cry, and her crying became louder and louder, and she was unable to find consolation. And while she was lamenting in this way, she heard someone call to her: 'What is the matter, Princess? You are crying so hard, a stone would be forced to pity you.' She looked around to see where the voice had come from, and there she beheld a frog, holding its fat, ugly head out of the water. 'Oh, it's you, old Water Plopper,' she said. 'I am crying over my golden ball, which has fallen into the spring.' 'Be calm; don't cry,' answered the frog. 'I can surely be of assistance. But what will you give me if I fetch your toy for you?' 'Whatever you would like to have, dear frog,' she said; 'my clothes, my pearls and jewels, even the golden crown that I wear.' The frog replied, 'Your clothes, your pearls and jewels, and your golden crown, I do not want; but if you will care for me and let me be your companion and playmate, let me sit beside you at your little table, eat from your little golden plate, drink from your little cup, sleep in your little bed: if you will promise me that, I will go straight down and fetch your golden ball.' 'All right,' she said. 'I promise you anything you want, if you will only bring me back the ball.' But she thought: 'How that simple frog chatters! There he sits in the water with his own kind, and could never be the companion of a human being.'

"As soon as the frog had obtained her promise, he ducked his head and sank, and after a little while came swimming up again; he had the ball in his mouth, and tossed it on the grass. The princess was elated when she saw her pretty toy. She picked it up and scampered away. 'Wait, wait,' called the frog, 'take me along; I can't run like you.' But what good did it do, though he croaked after her as loudly as he could? She paid not the slightest heed, but hurried home, and soon had completely forgotten the poor frog--who must have hopped back again into his spring."1

This is an example of one of the ways in which the adventure can begin. A blunder--apparently the merest chance--reveals an unsuspected world, and the individual is drawn into a relationship with forces that are not rightly understood. As Freud has shown,2 blunders are not the merest chance. They are the result of suppressed desires and conflicts. They are ripples on the surface of life, produced by unsuspected springs. And these may be very deep--as deep as the soul itself. The blunder may amount to the opening of a destiny. Thus it happens, in this fairy tale, that the disappearance of the ball is the first sign of something coming for the princess, the frog is the second, and the unconsidered promise is the third.

As a preliminary manifestation of the powers that are breaking into play, the frog, coming up as it were by miracle, can be termed the "herald"; the crisis of his appearance is the "call to adventure." The herald's summons may be to live, as in the present instance, or, at a later moment of the biography, to die. It may sound the call to some high historical undertaking. Or it may mark the dawn of religious illumination. As apprehended by the mystic, it marks what has been termed "the awakening of the self."3 In the case of the princess of the fairy tale, it signified no more than the coming of adolescence. But whether small or great, and no matter what the stage or grade of life, the call rings up the curtain, always, on a mystery of transfiguration--a rite, or moment, of spiritual passage, which, when complete, amounts to a dying and a birth. The familiar life horizon has been outgrown; the old concepts, ideals, and emotional patterns no longer fit; the time for the passing of a threshold is at hand.

Typical of the circumstances of the call are the dark forest, the great tree, the babbling spring, and the loathly, underestimated appearance of the carrier of the power of destiny. We recognize in the scene the symbols of the World Navel. The frog, the little dragon, is the nursery counterpart of the underworld serpent whose head supports the earth and who represents the life-progenitive, demiurgic powers of the abyss. He comes up with the golden sun ball, his dark deep waters having just taken it down: at this moment resembling the great Chinese Dragon of the East, delivering the rising sun in his jaws, or the frog on whose head rides the handsome young immortal, Han Hsiang, carrying in a basket the peaches of immortality. Freud has suggested that all moments of anxiety reproduce the painful feelings of the first separation from the mother--the tightening of the breath, congestion of the blood, etc., of the crisis of birth.4 Conversely, all moments of separation and new birth produce anxiety. Whether it be the king's child about to be taken from the felicity of her established dual-unity with King Daddy, or God's daughter Eve, now ripe to depart from the idyl of the Garden, or again, the supremely concentrated Future Buddha breaking past the last horizons of the created world, the same archetypal images are activated, symbolizing danger, reassurance, trial, passage, and the strange holiness of the mysteries of birth.

The disgusting and rejected frog or dragon of the fairy tale brings up the sun ball in its mouth; for the frog, the serpent, the rejected one, is the representative of that unconscious deep ("so deep that the bottom cannot be seen") wherein are hoarded all of the rejected, unadmitted, unrecognized, unknown, or undeveloped factors, laws, and elements of existence. Those are the pearls of the fabled submarine palaces of the nixies, tritons, and water guardians; the jewels that give light to the demon cities of the underworld; the fire seeds in the ocean of immortality which supports the earth and surrounds it like a snake; the stars in the bosom of immortal night. Those are the nuggets in the gold hoard of the dragon; the guarded apples of the Hesperides; the fi

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