Each book examines the history, evolution, military architecture and natural setting of the world's most important fortification systems. Cutaway artwork and exploded diagrams reveal the key features of each subject.
Design, technology and history of key fortresses, strategic positions and defensive systems
1.世界防御要塞系列01_日本二战太平洋岛屿防御1941-45_Osprey_Fortress01_Japanese Pacific island.pdf Defenses 1941-45
The prolonged and bloody fighting for control of the Japanese occupied Pacific islands in World War II is a key point in 20th-century warfare. No two islands were alike in the systems and nature of their defensive emplacements, and local improvization and command preferences affected both materials used and defensive models. This title details the establishment, construction and effectiveness of Japanese temporary and semi-permanent crew-served weapons positions and individual and small-unit fighting positions. Integrated obstacles and minefields, camouflage and the changing defensive principles are also covered.
2.世界防御要塞系列02_阿德里安城墙防御体系（公元122-410）_Osprey_Fortress02_Hadrian's Wall AD 122-410.pdf
Hadrian’s Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. It is the best known frontier in the entire Roman Empire and stands as a reminder of the past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations. Its origins lie in a visit by the Emperor Hadrian to Britain in AD 122 when he ordered the wall to be built to mark the northern boundary of his Empire and 'to separate the Romans from the Barbarians'. This title details the design, development and construction of the wall and covers the everyday lives of those who manned it as well as the assaults it withstood.
3.世界防御要塞系列03_二战德国U型潜艇基地与要塞1941-45_Osprey_Fortress03_U-Boat Bases and Bunkers 1941-45.pdf
Few of the massive military structures built by Germany during World War II are as impressive as the U-Boat bases and bunkers in Germany, Norway and France. This title takes a close look at the formidable edifices on the French coast (Brest, Lorient, St Nazaire, La Pallice, Bordeaux) in Norway (Bergen, Trondheim) and Germany (Keil, Hamburg, Helgoland) and also focuses on the huge 'Valentin' factory complex at Bremen, which manufactured the new type XXI electro-boats. Bunker protective systems, such as camouflage, light and heavy flak installations and nearby air cover, are also examined as well as resident flotillas and the fate of the bases at war's end.
提起德国在二战中建造的那些巨大的军事建筑物，给人印象最深刻的就是那些分布在德国、挪威、法国的U型潜艇的基地与掩体。本书详细展示了位于法国海岸（Brest布雷斯特、Lorient罗连安特、St Nazaire圣纳扎尔、La Pallice拉帕利斯、Bordeaux波尔多）、挪威海岸（Bergen卑尔根、Trondheim特隆赫姆）、德国海岸（Keil基尔、Hamburg汉堡、Helgoland赫尔戈兰）的那些庞大的建筑，同时也为我们具体展现了位于不来梅的Valentin工厂（此工厂建造了XXI级柴电潜艇）。本书还讲述了堡垒群的防御系统的伪装、轻重高射炮、附近的空中掩护、附近驻守的舰队以及这些基地在战争后的命运。
4.世界防御要塞系列04_美军在柯雷吉多尔岛和马尼拉湾防御（1898-1945）_Osprey_Fortress04_American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898-1945.pdf
The Philippines were declared an American Territory on January 4, 1899, and fortification construction soon began on the islands in the mouth of Manila Bay. Among the sites built were Fort Mills (Corregidor), Fort Frank, and the formidable "concrete battleship" of Fort Drum. The defenses suffered constant Japanese bombardment during World War II, leading to the surrender of American forces. In 1945 the forts were manned by Japanese soldiers determined to hold out to the bitter end. This title details the fortifications of this key strategic location, and considers both their effectiveness and historical importance.
5.世界防御要塞系列05_日本古代城堡1540-1640_Osprey_Fortress05_Japanese Castles 1540-1640.pdf
The landscape of 16th- and 17th-century Japan was dominated by the graceful and imposing castles constructed by the powerful ‘daimyo’ of the period. In this the most turbulent era in Japanese history, these militarily sophisticated structures provided strongholds for the consolidation and control of territory, and inevitably they became the focus for many of the great sieges of Japanese history: Nagashino (1575), Kitanosho (1583), Odawara (1590), Fushimi (1600), Osaka (1615) and Hara (1638), the last of the battles that brought an end to a period of intense civil war. This title traces their development from the earliest timber stockades to the immense structures that dominated the great centres of Osaka and Edo.
6.世界防御要塞系列06_美国内战防御工事㈠——海岸线上的砖石堡垒_Osprey_Fortress06_American Civil War Fortifications(1).pdf
The 50 years before the American Civil War saw a boom in the construction of coastal forts in the United States of America. These stone and brick forts stretched from New England to the Florida Keys, and as far as the Mississippi River. At the start of the war some were located in the secessionist states, and many fell into Confederate hands. Although a handful of key sites remained in Union hands throughout the war, the remainder had to be won back through bombardment or assault. This book examines the design, construction and operational history of those fortifications, such as Fort Sumter, Fort Morgan and Fort Pulaski, which played a crucial part in the course of the Civil War.
7.世界防御要塞系列07_托里什韦德拉什防线1809-1811_Osprey_Fortress07_The Lines of Torres Vedras 1809-11.pdf
Following the battle of Bussaco on 27 September 1810 Wellington's heavily outnumbered troops began to withdraw towards Lisbon. By the evening of 9 October the British and Portuguese began to withdraw behind a line of defensive works that had been built to the north of Lisbon. These were not the rudimentary field works that the French anticipated, but an enormous network of forts, batteries and redoubts whose construction had been started the previous November - the Lines of Torres Vedras. This 30-mile-wide line utilised the area's natural defences, damming rivers, scarping hillsides, blocking roads and establishing forts upon almost all of the hills. This title describes its design, creation and effectiveness in the face of French attacks.
8.世界防御要塞系列08_珍珠港与瓦胡岛的防御1907-50_Osprey_Fortress08_Defenses Of Pearl Harbor And Oahu 1907-50.pdf
At the beginning of the 20th century, the military importance of the Hawaiian Islands became clear. Oahu in particular was a key bastion in projecting America's military power in the Pacific. The island was turned into a military fortress - and yet it also became the site of one of America's greatest defensive failures, the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941. By the end of World War II, the harbor itself was the most heavily defended in the world, and the island had earned the sobriquet "Fortress Oahu". This title documents the development of the coastal, air and land defense systems that served to protect Pearl Harbor and Honolulu from 1907 to 1950, and seeks to understand why these failed at a critical point.
9.世界防御要塞系列09_英国内战城堡防御工事1642-51_Osprey_Fortress09_English Civil War Fortifications 1642-51.pdf
The techniques of European warfare were transformed during the 15th and 16th centuries by the use of gunpowder and by substantial progress in the effectiveness and destructive power of artillery. The series of conflicts in the 1640s, known collectively as the English Civil War, was the first in the British Isles that reflected this new reality. Sieges that aimed at isolating and reducing fortified places became the dominant instrument for prosecuting the war and protective fortifications were vital, for both the besieged as well as the besieger. This title describes how both the Parliamentarians and the Royalists made use of new fortification techniques throughout the course of this conflict.
10.世界防御要塞系列10_马其诺防线1928-45_Osprey_Fortress10_The Maginot Line 1928-45.pdf
The Maginot Line, the massive series of fortifications built by France in the 1930s to defend its borders with Germany and Italy, is perhaps the most maligned collection of fortifications ever built. Despite being a technological marvel, and the most sophisticated and complex set of fortifications built up to that time, it failed to save France from crushing defeat in 1940. Yet there are those who argue that it accomplished exactly what it was designed to do. This book provides a concise and informative treatment of the Maginot Line, from North-East France to the Mediterranean. Packed with plans, contemporary and modern images, plus digital artwork, it presents a detailed visual exploration of this famous fortification system.
11.世界防御要塞系列11_日尔曼骑士们的十字军城堡——普鲁士的红砖城堡1230-1466_Osprey_Fortress11_Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights.pdf
Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars, who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of their conquest of Prussia between 1230 and 1380. Many of these dramatic fortresses still exist today in what is now Poland, and provide a unique example of an architectural style that closely reflects the nature of the Order.
12.世界防御要塞系列12_伊比利亚半岛战争的防御工事1808-14_Osprey_Fortress12_Fortresses Of The Peninsular War 1808-14.pdf
In the course of the Peninsular War, Wellington’s army fought several hard battles and smaller actions, but it was the bloody sieges that troubled him more than anything else. Indeed, the performance of his army during the sieges was probably the most disappointing aspect of what was otherwise an extremely successful campaign. Taking 1808 as its starting point, this title deals with the fortress sieges that involved Wellington’s AngloPortuguese army, and concentrates on four key sites in particular (Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Burgos and San Sebastián). All of these played a vital role in the war due to their strategically important positions. It documents both the sieges and the storming of the fortresses, as well as the general role of the fortresses in Spain and the impact they had on the thinking of the commanders and strategies of the armies involved.
在伊比利亚半岛战争期间，惠灵顿将军的军队进行了大大小小的数次战役与冲突，这其中，令将军感到最为棘手的就是血腥而残酷的攻城战。实际上，赢得战役的伟大胜利也没能掩饰这支军队在攻城战中的令人及其失望的糟糕表现。1808年的攻城只是一个开始，自此以后，攻城战成了惠灵顿将军的英葡联军所面对的无尽的烦恼，特别集中体现在以下四个关键的地点：罗德里戈城Ciudad Rodrigo、巴达霍斯Badajoz、博格斯Burgos、圣塞巴斯蒂安San Sebastián。由于它们重要的战略位置，在战争中攻克它们成了生死攸关的任务。本书述了围绕着城堡所发生的围困与攻击的战斗，同时也记述了西班牙大地上的防御工事的全貌，以及指挥官的想法与军事战略对攻城战所产生的影响。
13.世界防御要塞系列13_诺曼底人的石头城堡㈠——不列颠岛1066-1216_Osprey_Fortress13_Norman Stone Castles (1).pdf
Descended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his position, the new king built a series of fortifications across the country - this book covers all these developments from the early days of William I through to the fortifications of Henry II, Richard I and John.
14.世界防御要塞系列14_韦塞克斯（英国南部）的城堡800-1066_Osprey_Fortress14_Fortifications In Wessex c.800-1066.pdf
The defence of the 9th-century kingdom of Wessex under King Alfred against the 'Great Viking Army' is one of the major military achievements of Early Medieval history. While the guerrilla warfare in the Somerset marshes and the battle of Edington are characteristic of Alfred's military abilities, his definitive physical achievement was a series of some 30 well-structured fortifications (known as burhs) across the kingdom. Many of these fortifications survive to this day and some were even reinforced to stand up to German tanks in the expected invasion of 1940. This title describes their beginnings in the turbulent early years of Alfred’s reign as well as their subsequent development and use.
15.世界防御要塞系列15_纳粹德国的西部防线——齐格弗里德防线_Osprey_Fortress15_Germany's West Wall Siegfried Line.pdf
The West Wall (or the Siegfried Line as the Allies called it) played a crucial role in the bitter fighting of 1944 and 1945 in North-West Europe. Constructed in the period immediately after the remilitarisation of the Rhineland in 1936, the Wall stretched for 300 miles from Cleve in the north to the Swiss Border and consisted of some 14,000 pillboxes. The Wall initially blunted the US attack, and Hitler used it as a foundation from which to launch the Ardennes Offensive. This title takes a detailed look at the development and form of this key fortification, examining the principles of its defence in visual depth, and discussing its fate in the wake of the Allied onslaught.
16.世界防御要塞系列16_马耳他的防御要塞1530-1945_Osprey_Fortress16_The Fortifications of Malta 1530-1945.pdf
The Island of Malta occupies a pivotal position in the Mediterranean, forming an outpost between North Africa and the soft underbelly of Europe. Such has been its strategic importance throughout the years that it has become one of the most fortified places in the world. Following the successful defence of the island during the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights Hospitaller built new walls and fortifications. These defences failed when Napoleon occupied Malta in 1798, and the island was retaken by the British in 1800. From this point onwards, Malta’s defences were modernised throughout the 19th century and the island’s final test came during World War II. This book examines all these different styles of fortification from the 16th to the 20th century.
马耳他岛占据了地中海的枢纽位置，它是连接北非和欧洲南部重要中转地点。这有重要战略意义的地理位置导致了它在漫长的历史长河中成为世界上防御最为强大的地方之一。在1565年成功地抵抗住了攻城战之后，豪斯比达尔爵士（Knights Hospitaller ）建造了新的城墙和防御工事。这些防御在1798年拿破仑占领马耳他时期被攻陷，整个马耳他岛也在1800年被英国占领。在这些历史事件的基础上，马耳他的防御工事在整个19世纪都在不断地被更新、加固，并且这个岛也顺利地度过了二战时期。本书探究了从16世纪到20世纪所有这些不同的防御工事的形式。
Hisarlik is a small place, a sandy stone strewn hillock cut up into gullies and hummocks. Yet its historical significance is immense, for this is the site of Troy - the legendary city whose story sprawls across cultures, time and geography. The tale of the siege of Troy is the greatest secular story ever told, and has captured the imagination of the Western World for some 3,000 years. Although there are many difficulties in using Greek myths, oral traditions and the Homeric epics to reconstruct the Trojan War, this title uses the latest archaeological evidence to reconstruct in detail the fortifications of Troy as well as making more general observations about the possible historical events behind the epics of Homer.
18.世界防御要塞系列18_诺曼底人的石头城堡㈡-欧洲950-1204_Osprey_Fortress18_Norman Stone Castles(2)Europe 950-1204.pdf
Following the creation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Normans were soon introduced to the castle and they built them in large numbers. In the mid-11th century, other Norman adventurers began carving out dominions for themselves in Southern Italy: some crossed to Sicily in 1061 and by 1091 had conquered the whole island. As in Normandy, they were keen to assimilate new ideas, including architectural styles, resulting in some striking buildings. This title, a companion to Fortress 13: Norman Stone Castles (1) The British Isles 1066-1216, provides a detailed guide to the castles built in Normandy, Southern Italy and Sicily, covering defensive principles, daily life, the events of siege warfare, and the fate of the castles.
19.世界防御要塞系列19_日尔曼骑士们的十字军城堡㈡拉托维亚和爱沙尼亚的石头城堡11851560_Osprey_Fortress19_Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights (2).pdf
The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title covers the developmental and operational history of these fortresses over the length of the Middle Ages. It details how the Baltic fortifications of the Teutonic Knights evolved to reflect the changing nature of siege warfare and the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare.
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