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《世界防御要塞系列图书》(Osprey Fortress Series)更新至第19本/已出56本(超清晰扫描版).pdf

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    发行时间2003年
  • 时间: 2006/08/27 14:23:55 发布 | 2006/08/27 14:23:55 更新
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中文名世界防御要塞系列图书
原名Osprey Fortress Series
版本更新至第19本/已出56本(超清晰扫描版).pdf
发行时间2003年
地区美国
简介

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Each book examines the history, evolution, military architecture and natural setting of the world's most important fortification systems. Cutaway artwork and exploded diagrams reveal the key features of each subject.
本系列的每一本图书都是以世界各地的最著名最重要的军事防御工事系统为对象,仔细研究了相关的历史、时代的发展、军事建筑、自然位置等方面的内容。书中包含大量的剖面图、透视图等为我们展现了每一个对象的重要的特征与细节。
Design, technology and history of key fortresses, strategic positions and defensive systems
本系列图书为我们展示了每一座防御要塞的设计、建造工艺、历史、战略位置和防御系统等诸多方面的要点。

本系列图书为英文版,图文并茂,超清晰超详细。

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1.世界防御要塞系列01_日本二战太平洋岛屿防御1941-45_Osprey_Fortress01_Japanese Pacific island.pdf Defenses 1941-45
The prolonged and bloody fighting for control of the Japanese occupied Pacific islands in World War II is a key point in 20th-century warfare. No two islands were alike in the systems and nature of their defensive emplacements, and local improvization and command preferences affected both materials used and defensive models. This title details the establishment, construction and effectiveness of Japanese temporary and semi-permanent crew-served weapons positions and individual and small-unit fighting positions. Integrated obstacles and minefields, camouflage and the changing defensive principles are also covered.
二战期间太平洋战场上争夺那些被日本侵略军盘踞的岛屿的那些持久而又血腥的战斗是20世纪世界战争的一个新特点,没有任何两个岛屿的防御工事在其系统和自然位置等方面是相似的,在战争中的改进与指挥水平也影响了器材的选用以及防御模式…… 等等的这些都向读者详细说明了日本军队各种临时性与半永久性的重武器工事、班排级掩体、单兵掩体之间的组织关系、建筑之间的关系、效率的发挥等内容。本书同时还包括了有关多重障碍物、雷场、转换防御的原则等方面的内容。


2.世界防御要塞系列02_阿德里安城墙防御体系(公元122-410)_Osprey_Fortress02_Hadrian's Wall AD 122-410.pdf
Hadrian’s Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. It is the best known frontier in the entire Roman Empire and stands as a reminder of the past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations. Its origins lie in a visit by the Emperor Hadrian to Britain in AD 122 when he ordered the wall to be built to mark the northern boundary of his Empire and 'to separate the Romans from the Barbarians'. This title details the design, development and construction of the wall and covers the everyday lives of those who manned it as well as the assaults it withstood.
阿德里安城墙是罗马人在不列颠建造的重要的纪念碑。它因是整个罗马帝国的边界而广为人知,而且也代表着那个世界最伟大的文明之一——古罗马——的荣誉。它最早是在阿德里安皇帝在公元122年巡视不列颠是时候建造起来的,当时它的主要作用只是作为罗马帝国边界并且把罗马人同欧洲蛮族相隔离。本书详细阐述了这条城墙的设计、演变和建造等,以及那些年代中守卫这条防线的人们。

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3.世界防御要塞系列03_二战德国U型潜艇基地与要塞1941-45_Osprey_Fortress03_U-Boat Bases and Bunkers 1941-45.pdf
Few of the massive military structures built by Germany during World War II are as impressive as the U-Boat bases and bunkers in Germany, Norway and France. This title takes a close look at the formidable edifices on the French coast (Brest, Lorient, St Nazaire, La Pallice, Bordeaux) in Norway (Bergen, Trondheim) and Germany (Keil, Hamburg, Helgoland) and also focuses on the huge 'Valentin' factory complex at Bremen, which manufactured the new type XXI electro-boats. Bunker protective systems, such as camouflage, light and heavy flak installations and nearby air cover, are also examined as well as resident flotillas and the fate of the bases at war's end.
提起德国在二战中建造的那些巨大的军事建筑物,给人印象最深刻的就是那些分布在德国、挪威、法国的U型潜艇的基地与掩体。本书详细展示了位于法国海岸(Brest布雷斯特、Lorient罗连安特、St Nazaire圣纳扎尔、La Pallice拉帕利斯、Bordeaux波尔多)、挪威海岸(Bergen卑尔根、Trondheim特隆赫姆)、德国海岸(Keil基尔、Hamburg汉堡、Helgoland赫尔戈兰)的那些庞大的建筑,同时也为我们具体展现了位于不来梅的Valentin工厂(此工厂建造了XXI级柴电潜艇)。本书还讲述了堡垒群的防御系统的伪装、轻重高射炮、附近的空中掩护、附近驻守的舰队以及这些基地在战争后的命运。

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4.世界防御要塞系列04_美军在柯雷吉多尔岛和马尼拉湾防御(1898-1945)_Osprey_Fortress04_American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898-1945.pdf
The Philippines were declared an American Territory on January 4, 1899, and fortification construction soon began on the islands in the mouth of Manila Bay. Among the sites built were Fort Mills (Corregidor), Fort Frank, and the formidable "concrete battleship" of Fort Drum. The defenses suffered constant Japanese bombardment during World War II, leading to the surrender of American forces. In 1945 the forts were manned by Japanese soldiers determined to hold out to the bitter end. This title details the fortifications of this key strategic location, and considers both their effectiveness and historical importance.
菲律宾在1899年1月4日被并入美国领土,接着在马尼拉湾出口的那些小岛上就有要塞开始建筑了。这些中有mill堡(在柯雷吉多尔岛上)、flank堡、被成为混凝土战舰的drum堡。这些堡垒在二战中遭受到的日本军队的持续轰击导致了美国军队的投降。这些堡垒在1945年又被日本士兵们拼死据守。本书还涵盖有详细讲述要塞的战略位置、防御效能的考量及历史价值的章节。

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5.世界防御要塞系列05_日本古代城堡1540-1640_Osprey_Fortress05_Japanese Castles 1540-1640.pdf
The landscape of 16th- and 17th-century Japan was dominated by the graceful and imposing castles constructed by the powerful ‘daimyo’ of the period. In this the most turbulent era in Japanese history, these militarily sophisticated structures provided strongholds for the consolidation and control of territory, and inevitably they became the focus for many of the great sieges of Japanese history: Nagashino (1575), Kitanosho (1583), Odawara (1590), Fushimi (1600), Osaka (1615) and Hara (1638), the last of the battles that brought an end to a period of intense civil war. This title traces their development from the earliest timber stockades to the immense structures that dominated the great centres of Osaka and Edo.
在16世纪至17世纪时的日本风景,主要被那些由当时统治日本的“大名”们修建的优雅而壮丽的城堡所主宰。在那个日本历史上最为动荡的年代里,这些最为精妙的军事建筑起到了巩固和控制统治区域的作用,显然,这些城堡也成了日本历史上那些重大的攻城战发生的焦点:长筱(1575)、北之庄城(1583)、小田原(1590)、伏见(1600)、大阪(1615)、原城(1638),这场最后的战役带来了日本动荡的战国时代的终结。本文探究了坐镇在大阪地区和伊豆半岛那些城堡的从木制据点到宏伟的建筑的发展历程。



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6.世界防御要塞系列06_美国内战防御工事㈠——海岸线上的砖石堡垒_Osprey_Fortress06_American Civil War Fortifications(1).pdf
The 50 years before the American Civil War saw a boom in the construction of coastal forts in the United States of America. These stone and brick forts stretched from New England to the Florida Keys, and as far as the Mississippi River. At the start of the war some were located in the secessionist states, and many fell into Confederate hands. Although a handful of key sites remained in Union hands throughout the war, the remainder had to be won back through bombardment or assault. This book examines the design, construction and operational history of those fortifications, such as Fort Sumter, Fort Morgan and Fort Pulaski, which played a crucial part in the course of the Civil War.
到美国南北战争爆发时为止,美利坚合众国的海岸堡垒群已经热火朝天地建造了50年。这些砖石城堡一直从新英格兰延伸到佛罗里达的珊瑚礁,就像密西西比河那样长。南北战争开始时,南方和北方各自拥有部分的海岸城堡。尽管有部分城堡在战争期间一直掌控在联邦军手中,而其他的城堡则只能依靠轰击和攻击才赢回来。本书详细介绍了那些城堡的设计、建造、和运作的历史,特别提及了在南北战争中位置极其重要的Sumter堡、Morgan堡、Pulaski堡。

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7.世界防御要塞系列07_托里什韦德拉什防线1809-1811_Osprey_Fortress07_The Lines of Torres Vedras 1809-11.pdf
Following the battle of Bussaco on 27 September 1810 Wellington's heavily outnumbered troops began to withdraw towards Lisbon. By the evening of 9 October the British and Portuguese began to withdraw behind a line of defensive works that had been built to the north of Lisbon. These were not the rudimentary field works that the French anticipated, but an enormous network of forts, batteries and redoubts whose construction had been started the previous November - the Lines of Torres Vedras. This 30-mile-wide line utilised the area's natural defences, damming rivers, scarping hillsides, blocking roads and establishing forts upon almost all of the hills. This title describes its design, creation and effectiveness in the face of French attacks.
随着bussaco战役的进行,1810年9月27日,惠灵顿将军人数众多的重装部队撤向了里斯本。到10月9日晚上,这支英国和葡萄牙的联军撤到了早就建造在里斯本以北的一条防线后面。这已经不是法国人早先调查过的那块未设防地域了,在11月到来之前,这里已经拥有了庞大的堡垒防御网、炮兵阵地、永久性堡垒——托里什韦德拉什防线。这条30英里宽的防线充分利用了当地的自然地理状况来构建其防御体系,阻塞了的河流、陡峭的山坡、阻塞的道路和建造好了的堡垒遍布了整个山脉。本书的章节描述了这条防线的设计和建造等细节,以及面对法军攻击时所发挥的防御效能。

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8.世界防御要塞系列08_珍珠港与瓦胡岛的防御1907-50_Osprey_Fortress08_Defenses Of Pearl Harbor And Oahu 1907-50.pdf
At the beginning of the 20th century, the military importance of the Hawaiian Islands became clear. Oahu in particular was a key bastion in projecting America's military power in the Pacific. The island was turned into a military fortress - and yet it also became the site of one of America's greatest defensive failures, the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941. By the end of World War II, the harbor itself was the most heavily defended in the world, and the island had earned the sobriquet "Fortress Oahu". This title documents the development of the coastal, air and land defense systems that served to protect Pearl Harbor and Honolulu from 1907 to 1950, and seeks to understand why these failed at a critical point.
进入20世纪,夏威夷群岛的重要性日益显现。特别的,瓦胡岛是美国军事力量在太平洋上关键的前进基地。这个岛开始变成了军事要塞——至今仍是美国最为失败的防守之地——1941年12月7日日本人偷袭了这个岛。到二战结束时,珍珠港已经成了世界上防御最为严密的地方,并且这个岛也赢得了“瓦胡要塞”的称呼。本文评述了在1907年到1950年用来防守珍珠港和檀香山的海岸、空中、陆地防御体系及其演变过程,并力求使读者明白这些防御为什么在关键时刻没能发挥作用。

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9.世界防御要塞系列09_英国内战城堡防御工事1642-51_Osprey_Fortress09_English Civil War Fortifications 1642-51.pdf
The techniques of European warfare were transformed during the 15th and 16th centuries by the use of gunpowder and by substantial progress in the effectiveness and destructive power of artillery. The series of conflicts in the 1640s, known collectively as the English Civil War, was the first in the British Isles that reflected this new reality. Sieges that aimed at isolating and reducing fortified places became the dominant instrument for prosecuting the war and protective fortifications were vital, for both the besieged as well as the besieger. This title describes how both the Parliamentarians and the Royalists made use of new fortification techniques throughout the course of this conflict.
由于火药的使用和火炮的威力与破坏力有了实质性的进展,15世纪与16世纪欧洲战争技术有了翻天覆地的变化。这一现实在不列颠岛上1640年代中的一系列冲突中得到了第一次的体现。 对于攻城战的双方来讲,以孤立并消耗筑垒地域为目的的攻城战成为战争的决定性手段、同时保护筑垒地域的防御工事也生死攸关。本书记述了议会军和国王军双方在整个战争冲突期间是怎么样应用新出现的筑垒防御技术。


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10.世界防御要塞系列10_马其诺防线1928-45_Osprey_Fortress10_The Maginot Line 1928-45.pdf
The Maginot Line, the massive series of fortifications built by France in the 1930s to defend its borders with Germany and Italy, is perhaps the most maligned collection of fortifications ever built. Despite being a technological marvel, and the most sophisticated and complex set of fortifications built up to that time, it failed to save France from crushing defeat in 1940. Yet there are those who argue that it accomplished exactly what it was designed to do. This book provides a concise and informative treatment of the Maginot Line, from North-East France to the Mediterranean. Packed with plans, contemporary and modern images, plus digital artwork, it presents a detailed visual exploration of this famous fortification system.
马其诺防线是法国在1930年代为了保卫其与德国和意大利的防线而修建的规模巨大的防御工事体系,它可能也是迄今为止遭受非议最多的防御工事。尽管它曾是那个年代的技术奇迹,同时也是那个年代最为精密和复杂的防御体系,可它并没有将法国从1940年的决定性的失败中挽回。至今仍有很多人为这条防线的真实意义而争论不休。本书呈现了从法国东北部到地中海的这条马其诺防线的简要运行情况。同时本书还提供了一些平面图、当时的和现在的一些照片、同时还提供了数字技术的影像——为我们呈现了这个著名的防御工事系统的详尽的、直观的内部构造。


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11.世界防御要塞系列11_日尔曼骑士们的十字军城堡——普鲁士的红砖城堡1230-1466_Osprey_Fortress11_Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights.pdf
Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars, who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of their conquest of Prussia between 1230 and 1380. Many of these dramatic fortresses still exist today in what is now Poland, and provide a unique example of an architectural style that closely reflects the nature of the Order.
在德意志的条顿骑士那混乱的历史中,这些骑士们曾经形成了颇受争议的兄弟会组织——尽管号称“耶稣之骑士团”。在宗教的感召下他们是最为好战的人,这点可以从他们栖身的城堡中体现出来。与那些被铭刻在教堂中默默无闻的圣殿骑士形成鲜明对比的是,那些尊为日尔曼历史的纪念碑的富丽堂皇的砖砌城堡,正是这些日尔曼骑士们在1230年至1380年间征服普鲁士大地的战利品。这些辉煌的城堡仍有很多屹立在今天的波兰境内,这种如此相似的建筑风格正是属于同宗教会的生动写照。

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12.世界防御要塞系列12_伊比利亚半岛战争的防御工事1808-14_Osprey_Fortress12_Fortresses Of The Peninsular War 1808-14.pdf
In the course of the Peninsular War, Wellington’s army fought several hard battles and smaller actions, but it was the bloody sieges that troubled him more than anything else. Indeed, the performance of his army during the sieges was probably the most disappointing aspect of what was otherwise an extremely successful campaign. Taking 1808 as its starting point, this title deals with the fortress sieges that involved Wellington’s Anglo­Portuguese army, and concentrates on four key sites in particular (Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Burgos and San Sebastián). All of these played a vital role in the war due to their strategically important positions. It documents both the sieges and the storming of the fortresses, as well as the general role of the fortresses in Spain and the impact they had on the thinking of the commanders and strategies of the armies involved.
在伊比利亚半岛战争期间,惠灵顿将军的军队进行了大大小小的数次战役与冲突,这其中,令将军感到最为棘手的就是血腥而残酷的攻城战。实际上,赢得战役的伟大胜利也没能掩饰这支军队在攻城战中的令人及其失望的糟糕表现。1808年的攻城只是一个开始,自此以后,攻城战成了惠灵顿将军的英葡联军所面对的无尽的烦恼,特别集中体现在以下四个关键的地点:罗德里戈城Ciudad Rodrigo、巴达霍斯Badajoz、博格斯Burgos、圣塞巴斯蒂安San Sebastián。由于它们重要的战略位置,在战争中攻克它们成了生死攸关的任务。本书述了围绕着城堡所发生的围困与攻击的战斗,同时也记述了西班牙大地上的防御工事的全貌,以及指挥官的想法与军事战略对攻城战所产生的影响。

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13.世界防御要塞系列13_诺曼底人的石头城堡㈠——不列颠岛1066-1216_Osprey_Fortress13_Norman Stone Castles (1).pdf
Descended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his position, the new king built a series of fortifications across the country - this book covers all these developments from the early days of William I through to the fortifications of Henry II, Richard I and John.
遗传自那些在911年定居在法国北部的由首领罗洛Rollo带领的那些维京强盗的祖先,诺曼底人是那个年代最为强悍的战士。他们对领土的贪欲在威廉一世爵士1066年征服英格兰的时候达到了极点,但是尽管黑斯廷斯大捷使英格兰的王冠落入了征服者威廉的手中(意指英格兰已经投降),诺曼底人的国家在不列颠岛上却延续了好久。为了巩固他的政权,新国王在他的国土上建造了一连串的防御城堡——本书的内容包含了所有这些城堡的发展演变的历程——从威廉一世直到亨利二世、里查德一世和约翰。

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14.世界防御要塞系列14_韦塞克斯(英国南部)的城堡800-1066_Osprey_Fortress14_Fortifications In Wessex c.800-1066.pdf
The defence of the 9th-century kingdom of Wessex under King Alfred against the 'Great Viking Army' is one of the major military achievements of Early Medieval history. While the guerrilla warfare in the Somerset marshes and the battle of Edington are characteristic of Alfred's military abilities, his definitive physical achievement was a series of some 30 well-structured fortifications (known as burhs) across the kingdom. Many of these fortifications survive to this day and some were even reinforced to stand up to German tanks in the expected invasion of 1940. This title describes their beginnings in the turbulent early years of Alfred’s reign as well as their subsequent development and use.
国王阿尔弗莱德Alfred统治下的韦塞克斯王国于公元9世纪抵御了强大的维京军团的这一防御作战是欧洲中世纪早期历史的主要军事成就之一。当时在Somerset沼泽地区进行的游击作战和爱丁顿战役是阿尔弗莱德的军事才能的典型表现,他的终极军事成就就是遍布他的王国的一系列大约30个建造得非常好的城堡(亦称burh)。这些城堡中有一些至今犹存,甚至在1940年还有部分城堡被加固过用来抵御可能预见的德国坦克的进攻。本书描述了在那个动荡的阿尔弗莱德统治时期这些城堡的出现以及其后的演变和应用。

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15.世界防御要塞系列15_纳粹德国的西部防线——齐格弗里德防线_Osprey_Fortress15_Germany's West Wall Siegfried Line.pdf
The West Wall (or the Siegfried Line as the Allies called it) played a crucial role in the bitter fighting of 1944 and 1945 in North-West Europe. Constructed in the period immediately after the remilitarisation of the Rhineland in 1936, the Wall stretched for 300 miles from Cleve in the north to the Swiss Border and consisted of some 14,000 pillboxes. The Wall initially blunted the US attack, and Hitler used it as a foundation from which to launch the Ardennes Offensive. This title takes a detailed look at the development and form of this key fortification, examining the principles of its defence in visual depth, and discussing its fate in the wake of the Allied onslaught.
纳粹德国的西部防线(盟军称之为“齐格弗里德防线”)在1944年和1945年西北欧洲的残酷战斗中起了至关重要的作用。这条防线是在德国违反《凡尔赛和约》派军队进驻莱茵兰地区后就立即修建起来了,这条防线从克莱弗一直延伸300英里直达瑞士的边境,由大约14000个碉堡组成。这条防线最初抵御住了美军的进攻势头,并且希特勒用这条防线作为发动阿登森林反击的基地。本书详细呈现了这条防线的形成过程,并且以关键的防御工事为例,栩栩如生地深入探究了其防御原理,论述了其在盟军的攻击下的突然陷落。

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16.世界防御要塞系列16_马耳他的防御要塞1530-1945_Osprey_Fortress16_The Fortifications of Malta 1530-1945.pdf
The Island of Malta occupies a pivotal position in the Mediterranean, forming an outpost between North Africa and the soft underbelly of Europe. Such has been its strategic importance throughout the years that it has become one of the most fortified places in the world. Following the successful defence of the island during the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights Hospitaller built new walls and fortifications. These defences failed when Napoleon occupied Malta in 1798, and the island was retaken by the British in 1800. From this point onwards, Malta’s defences were modernised throughout the 19th century and the island’s final test came during World War II. This book examines all these different styles of fortification from the 16th to the 20th century.
马耳他岛占据了地中海的枢纽位置,它是连接北非和欧洲南部重要中转地点。这有重要战略意义的地理位置导致了它在漫长的历史长河中成为世界上防御最为强大的地方之一。在1565年成功地抵抗住了攻城战之后,豪斯比达尔爵士(Knights Hospitaller )建造了新的城墙和防御工事。这些防御在1798年拿破仑占领马耳他时期被攻陷,整个马耳他岛也在1800年被英国占领。在这些历史事件的基础上,马耳他的防御工事在整个19世纪都在不断地被更新、加固,并且这个岛也顺利地度过了二战时期。本书探究了从16世纪到20世纪所有这些不同的防御工事的形式。

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17.世界防御要塞系列17_特洛伊城_公元前1700-公元前1250_Osprey_Fortress17_Troy c.1700-1250BC.pdf
Hisarlik is a small place, a sandy stone strewn hillock cut up into gullies and hummocks. Yet its historical significance is immense, for this is the site of Troy - the legendary city whose story sprawls across cultures, time and geography. The tale of the siege of Troy is the greatest secular story ever told, and has captured the imagination of the Western World for some 3,000 years. Although there are many difficulties in using Greek myths, oral traditions and the Homeric epics to reconstruct the Trojan War, this title uses the latest archaeological evidence to reconstruct in detail the fortifications of Troy as well as making more general observations about the possible historical events behind the epics of Homer.
希沙立克一个小地方,布满砂石的小山丘使这里到处是千沟万壑的景象。至今这里的历史意义仍是博物馆,因为这里是特洛伊城的所在地——就是那个穿越了文明、时间、空间的故事所发生的传奇城市。围攻特洛伊城的故事曾经是世界上最伟大的长诗(《荷马史诗》),并且使整个西方世界神魂颠倒了大约3000年。尽管在希腊神话中少有提及,但是世代的口耳相传和《荷马史诗》使我们能够重建特洛伊战争。本书采用最近的考古遗迹来重建特洛伊城的防御工事的细节,就像是在《荷马史诗》的书中对可能发生的历史事件进行综合考察一样。

18.世界防御要塞系列18_诺曼底人的石头城堡㈡-欧洲950-1204_Osprey_Fortress18_Norman Stone Castles(2)Europe 950-1204.pdf
Following the creation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Normans were soon introduced to the castle and they built them in large numbers. In the mid-11th century, other Norman adventurers began carving out dominions for themselves in Southern Italy: some crossed to Sicily in 1061 and by 1091 had conquered the whole island. As in Normandy, they were keen to assimilate new ideas, including architectural styles, resulting in some striking buildings. This title, a companion to Fortress 13: Norman Stone Castles (1) The British Isles 1066-1216, provides a detailed guide to the castles built in Normandy, Southern Italy and Sicily, covering defensive principles, daily life, the events of siege warfare, and the fate of the castles.
在诺曼底公国成立以后,诺曼底人迅速地建造了大量的城堡。在11世纪中期,一部分诺曼底冒险者在南部意大利开拓了自己的领地:一些领主在1061年征服了一部分的西西里,到1091年为止,整个西西里岛已经被征服了。就像是在诺曼底一样,这些诺曼底人不断吸收新的想法,特别是表现在某些显著建筑的风格上。本书是和《世界防御要塞系列13_诺曼底人的石头城堡㈠——不列颠岛1066-1216》一套的。为那些建造在诺曼底、南部意大利和西西里岛的城堡提供了详尽的介绍,包括有防守作战的原理、城堡内的日常生活、一些攻城战斗以及这些城堡的命运。


19.世界防御要塞系列19_日尔曼骑士们的十字军城堡㈡拉托维亚和爱沙尼亚的石头城堡11851560_Osprey_Fortress19_Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights (2).pdf

The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title covers the developmental and operational history of these fortresses over the length of the Middle Ages. It details how the Baltic fortifications of the Teutonic Knights evolved to reflect the changing nature of siege warfare and the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare.
在一个被称为“剑之兄弟”的军事头领的领导之下,最初以武力使那些信奉异教的立沃尼亚人(分布在现在波罗的海沿岸的拉脱维亚和爱沙尼亚)皈依了基督教。在1236年,这个头领在一次军事惨败后被日耳曼条顿骑士团降服。条顿骑士团通常以城堡和防御工事组成的防卫网来巩固其对一地区的征服,日耳曼条顿骑士团下的立沃尼亚教会也建造了许多石头城堡。本书讲述了在中世纪时期这些防御工事发展和运作的历史,详细阐述了日耳曼条顿骑士团分布在波罗的海沿岸的城堡是如何适应围城战和火药战争的发展而“进化”的。




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