最受人欢迎的俄罗斯管弦乐曲是哪一首？答案是柴可夫斯基的芭蕾舞剧《胡桃钳》。这个圣诞节的童话故事，在经柴可夫斯基谱写成芭蕾舞曲后，已成为每年圣 诞节的大家耳熟能详的经典节庆音乐。优美的管弦乐妆点出圣诞节的欢 乐气氛，洋溢著浓浓的俄式风采。
Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker
作者 ／ 贾维/ 卑尔根爱乐管弦乐团 Neeme Jarvi/ Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra
出版社 ／ CHANDOS RECORDS
出版日期 ／ 2014/12/29
俄罗斯浪漫派音乐大师〔柴可夫斯基〕──圣诞童话芭蕾舞剧经典〔胡桃钳／Щелку́нчик〕──梦幻迷人的〔胡桃钳组曲／The Nutcraker Suite〕
１８９２年 俄罗斯音乐家彼得．伊里奇．柴可夫斯基（Пётр Ильич Чайковский ; Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky，１８４０－１８９３）写下芭蕾舞剧〔胡桃钳〕«Щелку́нчик；The Nutcracker» ，作品７０原作是德意志作家E.T.A.霍夫曼的故事〔胡桃钳与老鼠王〕柴可夫斯基根据大仲马的版本谱上芭蕾舞乐 成为现在流行的版本这是个以圣诞节为背景的童话故事 以‘悲悵大师’闻名的柴可夫斯基以喜剧收场的作品相当稀少〔胡桃钳〕是少数的例外由於题材之故 加上柴可夫斯基的迷人的音乐让不同编舞家为它编了眾多版本〔胡桃钳〕老少咸宜 成为圣诞节最常最常搬上舞台的剧目之一 历久不衰
〔胡桃钳〕是柴可夫斯基三大芭蕾舞聚音乐技巧最纯熟的一部舞剧以二幕三场编排呈现旋律轻盈明亮 以跳跃式的喜悦吸引著观眾的注意力这齣戏的引人之处不只它结合俄罗斯 西班牙 中国 阿拉伯等风格的舞蹈更在於柴可夫斯基精心创作的舞曲从轻快的序曲到浪漫的华尔滋 从神秘悠扬的东方音乐到俏皮奔放的欧洲音乐更让人引人入胜 留连不已
１８９２年１２月 〔胡桃钳〕在圣彼得堡的马林斯基剧院首演 但不成功直到１９３４年在伦敦才广受欢迎 主要在圣诞季节上演 特别是美国
虽然首演反应平平其中节选出来的１２分鐘组曲〔The Nutcraker Suite , Op. 71a〕更富盛名组曲有不同版本 曲目组成 顺序也不同柴可夫斯基的版本是：
II 六首特色舞曲（Danse caracteristiques）：
２糖梅仙子之舞（Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy）
III花之圆舞曲（Waltz of the Flowers）
快速进行曲速度 迴旋曲式 採A-B-A-C-B-A形式这是组曲中最有名的一首 也常在音乐会演奏烟由单簧管 法国号 小号等演奏可爱的号曲主题再由弦乐奏出跳动似的旋律主题会反复出现多次中途长笛会提出快速乐句 但很快就回到号曲与跳动似的旋律
在竖琴悦耳的演奏下 钢片琴奏出迷人的旋律 表示温柔美丽的糖梅仙子到临
第一小提琴的有力旋律不停重复 后半逐渐加速 直到暴风似的情境 而结束
以弦乐为伴奏 三长笛奏出迷人旋律中间转为小调 铜管乐器则奏出新的旋律
在木管乐器序奏后 有一段竖琴装饰乐段接著法国号以和声演奏演奏优雅的圆舞曲 单簧管承继下去在音乐进入高昂阶段后 弦乐器滑入 交织成豪华的圆舞曲
长笛 双簧管继续奏出迷人的旋律 中途亦有略带感伤的段落不过最后气氛更加华丽 速度加速的结束乐曲
Label: Chandos Records
Composer: TCHAIKOVSKY, PETER ILYICH
Award: MDT SACD of the Month
Pyotr Il’yich Tchaikovsky (1840 – 1893)
Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra / Neeme Järvi
This is the concluding recording in Neeme Järvi’s series with the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra devoted to Tchaikovsky’s three great ballets. This complete, uncut version of The Nutcracker follows The Sleeping Beauty (CHSA5113) and Swan Lake (CHSA5124-2), both of which have been much awarded.
The Nutcracker draws its influences from both Hoffmann’s and Dumas’s tales of the same name, and makes delightful use of ‘le joli’, i.e. ‘the pretty’, in music – vivacious themes decked out in ingenious orchestration – already mastered by Léo Delibes in Coppélia.
The Nutcracker relates the dreams of Clara Silberhaus on Christmas Eve, aroused by the nutcracker which her mysterious godfather has given her. Then the guests’ lulling and languishing waltzes take her on a fantastic journey from a mystical snowy forest to the princely kingdom of Confiturembourg. Tchaikovsky illustrates this journey with various musical themes, such as confectionary, flowers, and Mirlitons, as well as Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Russian dances.
Commissioned by the director of the Imperial Theatres, Ivan Vsevolozhsky, and originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, The Nutcracker was premiered at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg in 1892. It came in a double bill with the opera Iolanta, also commissioned by Vsevolozhsky. For this recording, Neeme Järvi and the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra have re-explored Tchaikovsky’s masterpiece together, in order to offer a completely new experience of one of the most-performed ballets in musical history.
Chandos Records SACD CHSA5144
Conductor: Neeme Jarvi
Audio CD (3 Nov. 2014)
Please Note: Requires SACD-compatible hardware
Number of Discs: 1
Format: Hybrid SACD, SACD
This is the concluding recording in Neeme Järvi's series with the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra devoted to Tchaikovsky's three great ballets. This complete, uncut version of The Nutcracker follows The Sleeping Beauty (CHSA5113(2)) and Swan Lake (CHSA5124(2)), both of which have been much awarded.
The Nutcracker draws its influences from both Hoffmann's and Dumas's tales of the same name, and makes delightful use of le joli', i.e. the pretty', in music vivacious themes decked out in ingenious orchestration already mastered by Léo Delibes in Coppélia.
The Nutcracker relates the dreams of Clara Silberhaus on Christmas Eve, aroused by the nutcracker which her mysterious godfather has given her. Then the guests' lulling and languishing waltzes take her on a fantastic journey from a mystical snowy forest to the princely kingdom of Confiturembourg. Tchaikovsky illustrates this journey with various musical themes, such as confectionary, flowers, and Mirlitons, as well as Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Russian dances.
Commissioned by the director of the Imperial Theatres, Ivan Vsevolozhsky, and originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, The Nutcracker was premiered at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg in 1892. It came in a doublebill with the opera Iolanta, also commissioned by Vsevolozhsky. For this recording, Neeme Järvi and the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra have re-explored Tchaikovsky's masterpiece together, in order to offer a completely new experience of one of the most-performed ballets in musical history.
In this final instalment of their trilogy of Tchiakovsky ballet recordings, it comes as no surprise that the players in the Bergen Philharmonic are at one with their conductor, they play this score with a panache and imagination that holds the listener enthralled by the tale that begins one Christmas eve as Clara Silberhaus journeys from snow-covered forest to the enchanted kingdom of Confiturembourg. --Gramophone,Dec'14
Jarvi's recording is… recommendable to the score. --IRR, Dec'14
Neeme Järvi's Bergen Philharmonic series of Tchaikovsky ballets concluded with one of the fastest, most exhilarating recordings of The Nutcracker committed to desk. Not that it ever sounds rushed; this conductor has always shone in Russian music and the Bergen players aren't fazed by the score's technical demands. We all know the famous bits, there's so much more to this work than the familiar suite. The close of Act 1 is sublime in Järvi's hands, and he manages to make Act 2's extended sequence of dance movements brilliantly coherent. Wonderful solo playing too, especially from trumpet and harp. --ArtsDesk, 29/12/14
7 of 7 people found the following review helpful
Järvi's up-tempo yet affectionately conducted new Nutcracker
By Yi-Peng VINE VOICE on 9 Nov. 2014
Format: Audio CD
All year long I have looked forward to the release of this Nutcracker recording from Jarvi and the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra. Normally I don't want to listen to the Nutcracker at Christmas because everyone else is imbibing this ballet score and the Messiah as part of their Christmas traditions. However, once Chandos made this recording available, I bought a copy of the recording, listened to it and made notes for a review. Being the first one to review this product is both a delight and a burden. There are so many Nutcracker recordings to choose from that one might wonder what this new recording can add to the score. I also worry about the fallout from vouching for this wonderful new recording.
Jarvi's Tchaikovsky ballet project has been known for faster speeds than, for instance, Previn's EMI cycle and Bonynge's Decca cycle. I know that faster paced recordings may give listeners the impression of hurry sickness in the performers and might pose a health hazard in causing coronary thrombosis and cardiac arrest. I know that the slower recordings are more fit for ballet backing tracks and feature musicians who are better able to make the moment last. However, this Järvi Nutcracker is still conducted with affection and he is able to savour the intricacies and delights in Tchaikovsky's wonderful orchestration. Järvi and his orchestra are alert to the mood changes in the score and allow each number to express itself fully.
Jarvi's speeds are faster than most in the best known numbers of the score. The eight numbers of the Suite are all played earnestly, freshly and directly. The players articulate the various figurations with aplomb and precision. Outside the numbers in the Suite, the Pine Forest scene and the Pas de deux are given ravishing performances. The battle scene thrills and yet sounds as menacing as Drosselmeyer's entrance. Here and throughout the score Järvi conveys the childlike wonder of the story and allows Tchaikovsky's music to soar anew. I love the way he delights in Tchaikovsky's orchestration. The winds literally steal the show and the engineers capture this in luminous, clear and balanced sound.
If I had a quibble, it would be about tempo relationships between adjacent numbers. Either before or after a highlight (set piece) number Jarvi's tempo is slower than the set piece number itself. For instance, after the March in Act One, the ensuing Galop is comparatively slower. The Gergiev and Previn recordings, for instance, maintain the same basic speed after that number, regardless of whether they are going fast or slow. If the tempo between adjoining numbers were consistent they could better relate to each other.
It is wonderful that Chandos fitted this note-complete performance onto a single disc running for 84 minutes. This allows the Nutcracker release to complement the two other ballets and even compete with Gergiev's disc. I still have fond feelings for that disc, but this new version is just as excellent a digital Nutcracker as can be found today. The Chandos engineers have recorded this performance in superb, magnificent sound that approaches demonstration class in both multichannel and two-channel stereo sound.
Before I close this review, I would like to address concerns about the faster speeds in the various Nutcracker recordings. Single-disc performances might imply that the conductors are racing like road-runners. Doing a comparison, I've seen that Jarvi is generally faster than Gergiev in the Overture, Christmas Tree scene, the Pas de deux and even the famouse Act Two divertissement. However both conductors are still sane in their performances of the score and still conduct it with affection.
In short, this will still be a wonderful new Nutcracker that caps Järvi's Tchaikovsky ballet project in stunning style. Unreservedly recommended.
Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker, Op. 71
02. Act I Tableau 1: Decoration of the Christmas tree
03. Act I Tableau 1: March
04. Act I Tableau 1: Children's galop and entry of the parents
05. Act I Tableau 1: Arrival of Drosselmayer
06. Act I Tableau 1: The Nutcracker and Grandfather dance
07. Act I Tableau 1: Departure of the guests - Night
08. Act I Tableau 1: The battle and transformation scene
09. Act I Tableau 2: The forest of fir trees in winter
10. Act I Tableau 2: Waltz of the snowflakes
11. 1Act II Tableau 3: The enchanted palace of the kingdom of sweets
12. 2Act II Tableau 3: Arrival of Clara and the Nutcracker
13. 3Act II Tableau 3: Divertissement: a. Chocolate - Spanish Dance
14. Act II Tableau 3: Divertissement: b. Coffee - Arabian Dance
15. Act II Tableau 3: Divertissement: c. Tea - Chinese Dance
16. Act II Tableau 3: Divertissement: d. Trepak - Russian Dance
17. Act II Tableau 3: Divertissement: e. Dance of the Toy Flutes
18. Act II Tableau 3: Divertissement: f. Mother Gigogne and the clowns
19. Act II Tableau 3: Waltz of the flowers
20. 1Act II Tableau 3: Pas de deux: The Prince and the Sugar-Plum Fairy
21. Act II Tableau 3: Variation 1: Tarantella
22. Act II Tableau 3: Variation 2: Dance of the Sugar-Plum Fairy
23. Act II Tableau 3: Coda
24. Act II Tableau 3: Final waltz and apotheosis