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September 3,2013 11:55
二次战后的美国爵士乐坛并没有太多黑人乐手接受高等教育。有意思的是，当时对现代爵士乐非常捧场的乐迷，大多是白人大学生。不过，曾经有这么一位黑人小号手，五○年代初期就进入大学音乐系，篤信「知识就是力量」的他后来还取得曼哈顿音乐学院（Manhattan School of Music）硕士学位。七○年代时，他一边在霍尔德大学（Howard University）音乐系教书，一边念法律博士。最令人佩服的是，八○年代时，他还进一步取得纽约哥伦比亚大学音乐教育博士学位。读者或许会认为学历高低与演奏表现并无关係。但正因为这位仁兄是爵士乐坛里罕见的高学历乐手，所以他能够比别人早一步认清著作财产权之於创作型乐手的重要性，不但保护了自己，也让其他才华洋溢的后进免於被唱片公司剥削。
这位小号手名叫唐纳德‧拜尔德（Donald Byrd），而他所提携的后进，最有名的莫过於至今依然活跃的爵士钢琴大师Herbie Hancock。一九六二年，唱片公司要为Herbie Hancock录制第一张个人专辑Takin' Off时，提出的条件就是要他放弃音乐版权。Herbie Hancock听从「师父」Donald Byrd的话断然拒绝，当他站起身要离开会议室时，唱片公司代表的态度马上软化，於是Herbie Hancock不但顺利发行专辑，也保留了所有创作的版权。Takin' Off专集中最有名的曲子是「Watermelon Man」，由於拉丁乐手Mongo Santamaria稍后重新演奏了这首作品，大受欢迎，Herbie Hancock因而名利双收，至今「Watermelon Man」依然是这位钢琴家的招牌曲。
如果没有拜尔德的谆谆告诫，彼时还是菜鸟的Herbie Hancock可能会因为急著想发片，轻率地放弃版权，这位音乐神童的命运或许会改写。不过，从另一方面来看，如果仅是将拜尔德贴上「少见的高学历爵士乐手」、「提携后进不遗餘力的艺人」之标签，而不去论究他对於精纯咆勃乐（hard bop）的贡献，那就未免太小看他的才华了。
如同五○～六○年代那些曾经为鼓手Art Blakey效力的小号手一样，拜尔德曾经是「精纯咆勃养成班」—「爵士信差」乐团（Jazz Messengers）—的一员，即使他的小号音色没有像Lee Morgan或Freddie Hubbard那么阳刚，演奏的即兴乐句「砲火」也没那般炫技或猛烈。但作为Clifford Brown之后受瞩目的小号手，无论是作曲或演奏，拜尔德的实力都不容忽视。
尤有甚者，从五○年代到七○年代中期，拜尔德对於音乐市场的调适功力，并不亚於钢琴手Horace Silver。正因为有拜尔德或Horace Silver这样的艺人，「蓝调之音」唱片公司（Blue Note Records）得以在爵士乐市场走下坡、风雨飘摇的七○年代时，靠著发行灵魂、放客以及爵士摇滚（Jazz Rock）的专辑延续其命脉。而拜尔德跟他在豪尔德大学的学生共同合作，於一九七三年发行的Black Byrd，更成为「告示牌」排行榜上的畅销曲。他的创作后来更成为Acid Jazz乐团US3、或是饶舌歌手Public Enemy、Ice Cube取样的素材。如果没有拜尔德，不要说Herbie Hancock，连唱片公司的命运、爵士乐史都有可能改写呢！
俗语说：「青菜萝卜、各有所好。」曾接受过九○年代后期Neo Soul运动洗礼的年轻乐迷，可能会比较喜欢Black Byrd、Places and Spaces这类走灵魂乐路线、较偏流行的作品。对爵士乐迷而言，拜尔德最好的作品仍然是集中於五○～六○年代。这段期间的美国爵士乐不但有大量的黑胶唱片问世，最优秀、最有才华的黑人乐手也都投入爵士乐创作、演奏，积极建立自己的曲单，并透过在纽约市的Café Bohemia、Half Note、Birdland等俱乐部之演出，切磋琢磨，打造了「精纯咆勃乐黄金期」。拜尔德最好的爵士乐作品都在这段期间问世。
入门者可先从拜尔德在蓝调之音的录音，特别是Byrd in Flight、At the Half Note Café Vol.1 & 2（现场演出）、Free Form、Byrd in Hand几张专辑著手。听出兴趣之后，可以回溯他五○年代的在Transition Records发行的Byrd's Eyeview、Byrd Blows on Becon Hill两张逸品（日本的EMI曾重新发行CD），以及一九五八年他在法国巴黎与比利时萨克斯风手Bobby Jaspar合作的Parisian Thoroughfare、Byrd in Paris（环球的「Jazz in Paris」系列）。
对於精纯咆勃已有心得资深乐迷，建议不妨将拜尔德与上低音萨克斯风手Pepper Adams合作的专辑拿出来温习，例如：Off to the Races、Royal Flush、The Cat Walk、At the Half Note Café Vol.1 & 2、Byrd in Hand等，再一次体验两人激昂对尬的戏剧性，以及精纯咆勃乐爽直、快适的乐风。而拜尔德与萨克斯风手Gigi Gryce曾经共组「Jazz Lab」发行的专辑New Formulas from the Jazz Lab，笔者曾以「咆勃乐天空的一颗流星：谈被忽略的萨克斯风手Gigi Gryce」一文介绍过，本文不再赘述。
Byrd's Eyeview（Transition Records，1955）
五○年代中期，刚服完兵役的拜尔德来到纽约学习音乐，一边寻找发展机会。Kenny Dorham离开「爵士信差」之后，拜尔德成为该乐团的当家小号手，Byrd’s Eyeview就是在这样的机缘下诞生，参与的乐手几乎都是「爵士信差」的成员，包含了团长Art Blakey（鼓）、Horace Silver（钢琴）、Hank Mobley（次中音萨克斯风）与Doug Watkins（贝斯）等人，说它是一张「爵士信差」乐团的作品并不为过。由於另一位优秀的小号手Joe Gordon也参加了本张专辑的录音，形成激烈的「双头小号」大战，无论是原创曲或标準曲，两人你来我往，演奏功力十分到位。深受Clifford Brown影响的拜尔德，小号音色厚实醇美，十分迷人。Joe Gordon后来因火灾意外丧生，留下来的个人专辑只有Introducing Gordon Lookin' Good!。Byrd's Eyeview中可以听到他与拜尔德高潮迭起的对奏，更属难得。
Byrd Blows on Beacon Hill（Transition Records，1956）
Byrd Blows on Beacon Hill是一张以四重奏编制为主的作品，参与专辑录音的成员为Doug Watkins（贝斯）、 Ray Santisi（钢琴）与 Jim Zitano（鼓），据说当时是波士顿贝肯丘（Beacon Hill）最棒的节奏组合。平心而论，Byrd Blows on Beacon Hill并不是一张「纯种」的精纯咆勃作品，拜尔德演奏的曲目以三○年代的流行曲为主，如「Polka Dots and Moonbeams」、「People Will Say We’re in Love」、「Stella by Starlight」等。除了第四轨「If I Love Again」可明显听出咆勃乐的影响之外，大部分的作品都是在慢板的摇摆节奏中，展开拜尔德抒情、舒适的小号即兴。这张专辑问世的前一年，拜尔德最尊敬的小号前辈Clifford Brown在Verve发行了一张Clifford Brown with Strings，以詮释抒情或流行曲为主，对於拜尔德发行这张专辑不无影响。
Byrd in Paris（Gitanes Jazz Production，1958）
Jazz in Paris: Parisian Thoroughfare（Gitanes Jazz Production，1958）
这两张专辑本为同一天现场录音，因为长度关係分为两张唱片，由Brunswick发行，故合并介绍较为适合。虽然是在法国巴黎演奏的作品，不过除了萨克斯风手Bobby Jaspar为比利时人之外，Walter Davis Jr.（钢琴）、Doug Watkins（贝斯）与Art Taylor（鼓）都是不折不扣的美国乐手。虽然CD重制转录的效果并不理想，Walter Davis Jr.的琴音听起来尤为稀薄，但此一乐团好似职棒大联盟明星球员，虎虎生风地演奏咆勃乐，高手过招，绝无冷场，听来仍是过癮。几首较长的作品如「Parisian Thoroughfare」、「Dear Old Stockholm」、「Paul's Pal」与「The Blues Walk
从拜尔德在巴黎的现场录音，特别是詮释不同曲子的手法，不难听出他想要建立自我风格的野心。从咆勃与摇摆乐过渡到精纯咆勃乐，拜尔德深受这些与他同台表演乐手，尤其是Bobby Jaspar Walter Davis Jr.的啟发，吹得比以前更奔放，即兴延伸也很有深度。回到美国之后，拜尔德在「蓝调之音」发行了首张专辑Off to The Races，从此开展他演奏生涯的第一个高峰期。
Audio CD (January 29, 2001)
Original Release Date: 1958
Number of Discs: 1
Format: Original recording reissued, Original recording remastered, Import
Donald Byrd (t) Doug Watkins ( Art Taylor (d) Bobby Jaspar (ts, fl) Walter Davis Junior (p) recorded l`Olympia Paris, 22 October, 1958
1958Feb 1958: “A 7,600 pound Mark 15 hydrogen bomb is lost in waters off Savannah, Georgia”. That is so Bob Newhart. We lost a bomb, Sir. A Hydrogen bomb. Yes that’s right, a nuclear Hydrogen bomb. No, we don’t know where it is. It’s lost. Does it work? Well, we haven’t actually tried it, but yes, mostly they do.
A great live set from the young Byrd which features Bobby Jaspar’s feisty tenor playing as well as his more familiar position behind the flute. One thing to note, the selected opening track Dear Old Stockholm begins with a slightly disconcerting sound of Byrd playing off in the distance, I confess giving rise to a degree of panic on first play: is this a dreadful bootleg recording? We have all heard those tinny early recordings, preserved for “historical interest”. Thankfully it is just a theatrical gesture at the start of the set, Byrd playing while walking slowly towards the microphone at the centre of the Olympia stage. Effective in the theatre, no doubt, but for a minute it had me worried.
It was around this time Blakey and his Messengers also recorded live concerts at the Olympia, Paris, in parallel to sessions at the Club St Germain. Both give you the audience interaction and the sense of live performance, but in the theatre setting you don’t also get the buzz of conversation and people calling the bartender for drinks, though some people prefer it I gather.
Recorded early in his musical career during a three month stay in Paris, one of several occasions Byrd spent time in France. A clue to Byrd’s French connections is suggested by his full birth name Donaldson Toussaint L’Ouverture Byrd II. Sounds a little more French than “Don Byrd” and he looks like he might actually be reading Le Figaro. At least it’s the right way up. NBFA – Not bad for an American.
Vinyl: Brunswick – LPBM 87 903 pressed by Deutche-Gramaphon.
Originally released in 1958 in France as “Byrd in Paris” and in 1959 in Germany as “The “New” Donald Byrd Quintet” Brunswick – 87 903 LPBM. This is the German release. This recording and more tracks from Byrd’s 1958 Paris sessions are released on a two-volume CD, Parisian Thoroughfare, but not elsewhere available on vinyl. A great cover, a bonus for followers of the less-evil black disk.
The Brunswick label, a rather fine looking label, the only example I have. In early days, the Bruswick label was once a rival to Columbia and Victor, best known for the recordings of Bing Crosby on 78′s. Around the time of the Byrd recording it was part of American Decca stable under Coral Records, famed for artists like Buddy Holly and The Crickets. Brunswick appears here to be American Decca’s vehicle to get into Europe (and around UK Decca), using its partnership with classical music specialist Deutche Gramaphon for manufacture.The main business of all these labels seemed to be licensing shenanigans and litigation, with only a small sideline in releasing records
爵士 巴黎 Jazz In Paris 系列
爵士 巴黎 Jazz In Paris 系列
纳学音乐等等，早期纽奥良的爵士乐手，比如说果冻捲摩顿（Jelly Roll Morton）就是
乐部五重奏（The Quintet Of The Hot Club Of France），在巴黎吸引了眾多乐迷的拥
戴。《Swing 39》、《Swing In Paris》这两张蓝哈特的唱片，是爵士巴黎系列中不可
一、二辑The Best Live Concert Vol. I ＆II》当中，不论是演唱或是小喇叭的演奏，
都呈现出一种轻鬆愉悦的感觉。第一辑开场的〈When It』s Sleepy Time Down South〉
《伯德在巴黎Byrd In Paris》和《巴黎大道Parisian Thoroughfare》两张现场专辑就
Mary Lou Williams）《令卿恋巴黎I Made You Love Paris》等了不起的作品，各位有
Donald Byrd was considered one of the finest hard bop trumpeters of the post-Clifford Brown era. He recorded prolifically as both a leader and sideman from the mid-'50s into the mid-'60s, most often for Blue Note, where he established a reputation as a solid stylist with a clean tone, clear articulation, and a knack for melodicism. Toward the end of the '60s, Byrd became fascinated with Miles Davis' move into fusion, and started recording his own forays into the field. In the early '70s, with the help of brothers Larry and Fonce Mizell, Byrd perfected a bright, breezy, commercially potent take on fusion that was distinct from Davis, incorporating tighter arrangements and more of a smooth soul influence. Opinions on this phase of Byrd's career diverge wildly — jazz purists utterly despised it, branding Byrd a sellout and the records a betrayal of talent, but enraptured jazz-funk fans regard it as some of the most innovative, enduring work of its kind. In fact, proportionately speaking, Byrd was held in even higher esteem by that audience than by straight-ahead jazz fans who enjoyed his hard bop output.
Donaldson Toussaint L'Ouverture Byrd II was born in Detroit, Michigan, on December 9, 1932. His father, a Methodist minister, was an amateur musician, and Byrd was already an accomplished trumpeter by the time he finished high school, having performed with Lionel Hampton. Byrd served a stint in the Air Force, during which time he played in a military band, and subsequently completed his bachelor's degree in music at Wayne State University in 1954. He moved to New York in 1955 to get his master's at the Manhattan School of Music, and soon began performing with pianist George Wallington's group. In December of that year, he was invited to join Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, filling a chair once held by his idol, Clifford Brown, and Kenny Dorham. Byrd also began his recording career during this period, leading several sessions (mostly for Savoy) and working often as a sideman, particularly at the Prestige label. He left the Jazz Messengers in 1956 and joined up with Max Roach; he went on to play with the likes of John Coltrane, Sonny Rollins, and Red Garland, and also co-founded the Jazz Lab Quintet with altoist Gigi Gryce in 1957.
In 1958, Byrd signed an exclusive recording contract with Blue Note, and also formed a band with baritonist Pepper Adams, who would remain Byrd's regular partner until 1961. Byrd's Blue Note debut was 1958's Off to the Races, and he and Adams collaborated on a series of excellent hard bop dates over the next three years, including Byrd in Hand (1959), At the Half Note Cafe, Vols. 1-2 (1960), The Cat Walk (1961), and Royal Flush (also 1961), among others. Another 1961 recording, Free Form, found Byrd giving a young Herbie Hancock some of his earliest exposure. Following this burst of activity, Byrd took a sabbatical to continue his studies in Europe, where he spent some time under the tutelage of the legendary French music educator Nadia Boulanger. He returned to the U.S. in 1963 and recorded A New Perspective, a now-classic set that broke new ground by incorporating gospel choirs into its arrangements; its signature piece, "Cristo Redentor," became quite popular.
In the mid-'60s, Byrd focused more of his energies on teaching, and worked diligently to make jazz and its history a legitimate part of the college curriculum. He taught at Rutgers, Hampton, New York University, and Howard in the late '60s, and the last one remained a steady association for much of the '70s. In the meantime, Byrd continued to record occasionally, cutting a final spate of hard bop albums over 1966-1967 that included Mustang! and Blackjack. Byrd also began to study African music, inspired partly by the emerging black-consciousness movement, and became interested in Miles Davis' efforts to woo a younger audience (including Byrd's own students) by experimenting with electronics and funk rhythms. Released in 1969, Fancy Free found Byrd using electric piano for the first time, with a spacy sound that recalled Davis' In a Silent Way. Issued in 1970, Electric Byrd had more of a Bitches Brew flavor, and the jams on 1971's Ethiopian Knights were longer, funkier, and more aggressive.
Byrd truly came into his own as a fusion artist when he hooked up with brothers Larry and Fonce Mizell, who began to handle production, writing, and some musical support duties. Their first collaboration was 1972's Black Byrd, an upbeat, funky blend of jazz and R&B. Jazz critics detested the album and called Byrd all sorts of names, but the record was a smash hit; it became the biggest seller in Blue Note history, and just missed hitting number one on the R&B albums chart. In the wake of its success, Byrd formed a supporting group, the Blackbyrds, who were culled from the cream of his music students at Howard University and recorded through the rest of the '70s. Byrd went on to release a string of successful LPs in partnership with the Mizell Brothers, including the imaginary blaxploitation soundtrack Street Lady (1974), Stepping into Tomorrow (1975), the much-lauded Places and Spaces (1976), and Caricatures (1977). All made the Top Ten on the R&B album charts, and the Places and Spaces single "Change (Makes You Wanna Hustle)" even got substantial play in discotheques. Jazz-funk fans revere this period in general, but usually reserve their highest praise for Street Lady and, especially, Places and Spaces. As a side note to his musical career, Byrd finished law school in 1976, and went on to teach at North Carolina Central University.
Following Caricatures, Byrd parted ways with Blue Note and the Mizell Brothers and moved to Elektra. He recorded several albums over 1978-1983, but even the most commercially successful, 1978's Thank You...for F.U.M.L. (Funking Up My Life), didn't match the infectiousness of his Blue Note jazz-funk outings. In 1982, Byrd received his Ph.D. from Columbia Teachers College. He spent a few years in the mid-'80s away from recording, due in part to ill health, but continued to teach, moving on to North Texas State and Delaware State. In the late '80s and early '90s, Byrd returned to the hard bop of his early days on several sessions for the Landmark label. He participated in rapper Guru's Jazzmatazz project in 1993, and with the advent of the jazz-rap movement and England's acid jazz revival, his '70s albums became hugely popular sources for samples. In the meantime, Byrd continued his activities as a jazz educator. He died in February 2013 at the age of 80.
Donaldson Toussaint L'Ouverture Byrd II (December 9, 1932 – February 4, 2013) was an American jazz and rhythm and blues trumpeter. A sideman for many other jazz musicians of his generation, Byrd was best known as one of the only bebop jazz musicians who successfully pioneered the funk and soul genres while simultaneously remaining a jazz artist. As a bandleader, Byrd is also notable for his influential role in the early career of renowned keyboard player and composer Herbie Hancock.
01. Dear Old Stockholm
02. Paul's Pal
03. Flute Blues
04. Ray's Idea
05. The Blues Walk