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《一个学生的法语语法》(A Student Grammar of French)文字版[PDF]

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    出版社Cambridge University Press
    发行时间2006年5月5日
    语言英文
  • 时间: 2012/07/20 22:04:13 发布 | 2012/07/21 01:29:26 更新
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中文名一个学生的法语语法
原名A Student Grammar of French
资源格式PDF
版本文字版
出版社Cambridge University Press
书号0521547628
发行时间2006年5月5日
地区美国
语言英文
简介

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内容介绍:

这本书主要涉及法语的基本语法,适合英语基础好的朋友来学习。

A concise introduction to French grammar, designed specifically for English-speaking undergraduates. Illustrating each grammatical point with examples from everyday life, it explains the fundamentals in simple terms, contains a range of exercises, and has a clear, user-friendly indexing system. The perfect accompaniment to any first or second year undergraduate course.
About the Author
Malcolm Offord is formally Lecturer and Reader in the Department of French, University of Nottingham.

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目录

Contents
Acknowledgements page xix
Introduction 1
Chapter 1 Verbs: 1 4
1 Introduction 4
2 Verbs 4
3 Treatment of verbs 4
Discursive treatment of verbs 5
Infinitives 5
4 Infinitives 5
Person 5
5 Person 5
Mood 5
6 Mood 5
Tense 6
7 Tense 6
8 Tenses 6
9 Presentation of tenses 7
10 Infinitives and conjugations 7
11 Infinitive endings for the four groups 7
12 Subgroups 7
13 Group 1 –er verbs, Group 2 –ir verbs, Group 3 –re verbs, Group 4 –oir
verbs 8
14 The formation of tenses – simple and compound tenses 8
Indicative mood 9
Present tense 9
15 Group 1 –er verbs 9
16 Present tense of Group 1 –er verbs 9
17 Subgroups 9
18 –er verbs Subgroup 1 9
19 –er verbs Subgroup 2 10
20 –er verbs Subgroup 3 10
21 –er verbs Subgroup 4 10
22 Group 2 –ir verbs 11
23 Present tense of Group 2 –ir verbs 11
24 –ir verbs Subgroup 1 11
25 –ir verbs Subgroup 2 11
26 –ir verbs Subgroup 3 12
27 –ir verbs Subgroup 4 12
28 –ir verb mourir = to die 12
29 Group 3 –re verbs 12
30 Present tense of Group 3 –re verbs 12
31 –re verbs Subgroup 1 12
32 –re verbs Subgroup 2 13
33 –re verbs Subgroup 3 13
34 –re verbs Subgroup 4 14
35 –re verbs Subgroup 5 14
36 –re verbs Subgroup 6 14
37 –re verbs Subgroup 7 14
38 Group 4 –oir verbs 15
39 Present tense of Group 4 –oir verbs 15
40 –oir verbs Subgroup 1 15
41 –oir verbs Subgroup 2 15
42 –oir verbs Subgroup 3 15
Imperfect tense 16
43 Using and forming the imperfect tense 16
44 Examples of the imperfect tense Groups 1–4 17
Future and conditional tenses 18
45 Using the future and conditional tenses 18
46 Endings of future and conditional tenses 18
47 Examples of future and conditional tenses of Group 1 –er verbs 19
48 Stem changes of Group 1 –er verbs 19
49 Group 1 –er verbs with radical stem variation 20
50 Examples of future and conditional tenses of Group 2 –ir verbs 21
51 –ir verbs Subgroup 3 21
52 Group 2 –ir verbs with radical stem variation 21
53 Future and conditional tenses of Group 3 –re verbs 22
54 The exceptions ˆetre and faire 22
55 Future and conditional tenses of Group 4 –oir verbs 22
Participles 23
56 Present participles 23
57 Exceptions 24
58 Past participles 24
59 Formation of past participles Groups 1–3 24
60 Group 3 –re verbs with distinctive past participles 25
61 Past participles of Group 4 –oir verbs 25
Compound tenses 25
62 General comments 25
63 avoir or ˆetre? 25
64 Verbs conjugated with ˆetre and agreement 26
65 Verbs which may be conjugated with either avoir or ˆetre 27
Perfect tense 27
66 Formation 27
67 Perfect tense of Group 1–4 verbs 27
Pluperfect tense 29
68 Formation 29
69 Pluperfect tense of Group 1–4 verbs 29
Future perfect tense 30
70 Formation 30
71 Future perfect tense of Group 1–4 verbs 30
Conditional perfect tense 31
72 Formation 31
73 Conditional perfect tense of Group 1–4 verbs 31
Past historic tense 32
74 Past historic 32
75 Past historic tense of Group 1 –er verbs 33
76 Examples of Group 1 –er verbs 33
77 Past historic tense of Group 2 –ir verbs 33
78 Examples of Group 2 –ir verbs 33
79 –ir verbs Subgroup 4 34
80 –ir verbs exceptions to Subgroup 2 and mourir 34
81 Past historic tense of Group 3 –re verbs 34
82 Group 3 –re verbs with past historic endings in –i– 34
83 Group 3 –re verbs with stem variation 35
84 Group 3 –re verbs with past historic endings in –u– 35
85 Past historic tense of Group 4 –oir verbs 36
86 Group 4 –oir verbs with past historic endings in –i– 36
87 Group 4 –oir verbs with past historic endings in –u– 36
Past anterior tense 37
88 General comments 37
89 Formation 37
90 Examples of Group 1–4 verbs 37
Subjunctive mood 38
Present subjunctive tense 38
91 Formation 38
92 Group 1 examples of the present subjunctive 38
93 Group 1 verb which diverges from the normal pattern – aller 39
94 Group 2 examples of the present subjunctive 39
95 Group 3 examples of the present subjunctive 39
96 Group 3 verbs which diverge from the normal pattern 40
97 Group 4 examples of the present subjunctive 40
98 Group 4 verbs which diverge from the normal pattern 40
Imperfect subjunctive tense 41
99 Formation and usage 41
100 Examples of the imperfect subjunctive 41
Perfect and pluperfect subjunctive tenses 42
101 Formation 42
102 Examples of Group 1–4 verbs 42
Pronominal verbs 43
103 Pronominal verbs 43
104 Compound tenses 43
105 Agreement of past participles 44
106 The variable values of reflexive pronouns – how to interpret the
pronouns 44
107 Occasional difficulty in deciding whether the pronoun is direct or
indirect object 46
108 The agreement in compound tenses of pronominal verbs with
direct objects and those with indirect objects 47
109 Verbs that are always pronominal and those that are
sometimes pronominal 47
Voice 48
110 Active and passive voice 48
111 Restrictions on conversion from active to passive voice 48
112 Formation of the passive voice 48
113 Examples of the passive voice 49
114 Avoiding and using the passive voice 49
Exercises 50
Chapter 2 Verbs: 2 53
Using verbs 53
Mood 53
The imperative mood 53
115 The imperative 53
116 The restricted forms of the imperative 53
117 The forms of the imperative 53
118 Forming the imperative 53
119 Exceptions 54
120 Forming the imperative of pronominal verbs 54
121 Meaning of the imperative 55
122 Alternatives to the imperative 55
123 The imperative combined with object pronouns 56
Indicative and subjunctive moods 56
124 The indicative and subjunctive moods and tenses 56
Present tense 56
125 Uses – 1: present moment; 2: habitual time; 3: universal time 56
126 4: marking continuous time 57
127 Other uses of the present tense – 5: future; 6: past 57
Past tenses 58
128 Past tenses 58
Imperfect tense 58
129 Uses – 1: duration; 2: interrupted time; 3: description;
4: repeated action 58
Past historic tense 59
130 Uses 59
Perfect tense 60
131 Uses – 1: past affecting present; 2: past divorced from present 60
Pluperfect tense 61
132 Uses 61
Past anterior tense 61
133 Uses 61
Double compound past tense 62
134 Uses 62
Future tense 62
135 Uses – 1: future; 2: attenuation of imperative 62
136 Other ways of referring to the future 63
Future perfect tense 63
137 Use 63
Conditional tense 63
138 Uses – 1: conveying future in reported speech; 2: as corollary of
conditional clause; 3: conjecture 63
Conditional perfect tense 64
139 Uses – 1: conveying future perfect in reported speech; 2: hypothesis;
3: conjecture 64
140 Differences in tense usage in French and English 65
141 Differences between French and English use of tenses – 1: sequence
of tenses 65
142 Differences between French and English use of tenses – 2: depuis,
il y a 66
143 Differences between French and English use of tenses – 3: venir de 67
Subjunctive mood 68
144 When to use the subjunctive 68
145 Use of tenses in the subjunctive 68
146 Sequence of tenses in the subjunctive 68
147 Illustration of the sequence of tenses in the subjunctive 68
Grammatical circumstances requiring the subjunctive 69
148 In clauses introduced by a conjunctive expression 69
149 In clauses depending upon a verb or expression conveying an emotion 73
150 In clauses depending upon a verb or expression conveying avoiding,
chance, denial, evaluation, forbidding, (im)possibility, improbability,
necessity, uncertainty 75
151 In relative clauses depending upon a superlative formed with plus
or moins 78
152 In noun clauses introduced by le fait que or que alone 78
153 In clauses depending upon a range of indefinite expressions, equivalent
to words in –ever – pronouns whoever, whatever, adjective whatever, adverbs
however, wherever 78
Grammatical circumstances where the subjunctive may be used 80
154 Optional subjunctive 80
155 In clauses depending upon a superlative not formed with plus or
moins and upon such expressions as dernier, premier, seul 81
156 Other situations where the subjunctive is optional 81
157 Use with apr`es que 82
158 Pluperfect subjunctive equivalent to conditional perfect 82
Modal verbs 83
159 Definition of a modal verb 83
160 devoir 83
161 pouvoir 84
162 savoir 87
163 vouloir 87
Impersonal verbs 88
164 Impersonal verbs 88
Defective verbs 89
165 Defective verbs 89
Exercises 90
Chapter 3 Tabular treament of verbs 92
166 Order of presentation 92
Indicative mood 93
Group 1 –er verbs 93
167 Group 1 –er verbs 93
Group 2 –ir verbs 96
168 Group 2 –ir verbs 96
Group 3 –re verbs 98
169 Group 3 –re verbs 98
Group 4 –oir verbs 103
170 Group 4 –oir verbs 103
Subjunctive mood 106
Group 1 –er verbs 106
171 Group 1 –er verbs 106
Group 2 –ir verbs 109
172 Group 2 –ir verbs 109
Group 3 –re verbs 111
173 Group 3 –re verbs 111
Group 4 –oir verbs 115
174 Group 4 –oir verbs 115
Exercises 117
Chapter 4 Verb list 119
175 Using the list 119
176 The list 119
Chapter 5 Nouns and adjectives 129
Nouns 129
177 Nouns 129
Gender 130
178 Gender 130
179 Assigning gender 130
180 Patterns for masculine gender 131
181 Patterns for feminine gender 133
182 Awkward cases of gender identity 134
183 Names of countries, towns and rivers 135
184 Homonyms 136
185 Nouns requiring special attention 138
186 Nouns designating people and animals 138
187 Gender of compound nouns 139
Number 141
188 Count and mass nouns 141
189 Markers for forming the plural of nouns 142
190 Plural of compound nouns 144
191 Different usages of number in French and English 145
192 Contrast between singular and plural usage in French 146
Adjectives 146
193 Adjectives 146
194 Adjectives and gender 146
195 Adjectives with a variable masculine form 149
196 Adjectives and number 149
197 Adjectives and agreement 150
198 Agreement of certain prepositional and adverbial expressions involving
past participles 151
199 Comparison of adjectives – comparative and superlative forms –
1: comparative and superlative of inequality; 2: comparative of equality 152
200 Use of ne / le in clauses following a comparative 153
201 The more the merrier 153
202 The position of adjectives 153
203 Adjectives which change their meaning according to their position 155
204 Adjectives that may occur before or after the noun without
change of meaning 157
205 Multiple adjectives 157
Exercises 158
Chapter 6 Pronouns 161
206 Pronouns 161
Personal pronouns 161
207 Personal pronouns 161
208 The forms 162
209 Elision of certain pronouns 163
210 Position of pronouns – 1: subject pronouns; 2: object pronouns 163
211 Order of object pronouns 164
212 Order of pronouns with the imperative 165
213 Position of pronouns with an infinitive and the presentatives voici
and voil `a 166
214 Agreement of past participles with a preceding direct object 167
215 First person personal pronouns 167
216 Second person personal pronouns 168
217 Third person personal pronouns 169
218 Different usages in French and English 170
219 ce and il with reference to persons 170
220 Neuter subject pronouns 171
221 ce or il? 1 – 1: when followed by an adjective; 2: followed by
adjective + infinitive; 3: followed by adjective + clause; 171
222 Distinguishing il and ce: 2 173
223 The use of c’est to highlight a section of an utterance 174
224 Use of on 174
225 Agreement of adjectives and past participles with on 176
226 on and its other forms 176
227 Personal pronouns – object 177
228 The various values of the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, vous 178
229 le referring to a previously expressed concept 179
xi
230 Dealing with the anticipatory it of English 179
231 Stressed personal pronouns: 1 180
232 Stressed personal pronouns: 2 181
233 Stressed personal pronouns: 3 182
234 en and y 182
235 en 182
236 y 184
Demonstrative pronouns 185
237 Demonstrative pronouns 185
238 Examples of demonstrative pronouns 186
239 The neuter demonstrative pronouns ceci, cela, c¸a 187
Possessive pronouns 188
240 Possessive pronouns 188
241 Examples of possessive pronouns 188
Quantifying and indefinite pronouns 189
242 Quantifying pronouns 189
243 Examples of quantifying pronouns 189
244 la plupart 190
245 Indefinite pronouns and related expressions 190
246 Examples of indefinite expressions 191
Exercises 191
Chapter 7 Determiners 195
247 Determiners 195
The articles 195
248 The three articles 195
249 Forms of the three articles 196
250 Position of the articles 197
251 Differences between French and English usages of the articles – article
in French where none is used in English: 1 198
252 Article in French where none is used in English: 2 199
253 Article in French where none is used in English: 3 199
254 Differences between French and English usages of the articles – no
article in French where there is one in English 200
255 Differences between French and English usages of the articles – a
different article in French from English 201
256 Differences between French and English usages of the articles – usage
with titles 203
257 Differences between French and English usages of the articles –
lists of nouns 203
258 Zero article 204
259 When des becomes de 206
260 More de – use of indefinite and partitive articles with a
negative expression 208
261 Repetition of article 208
262 Which article? 208
263 La nouvelle Ath`enes 209
264 Key 209
Demonstrative determiners 210
265 Demonstrative determiners – demonstrative adjectives – the forms 210
266 Examples of demonstrative adjectives 211
Possessive determiners 212
267 Possessive determiners – possessive adjectives 212
268 The son series 213
269 Possible ambiguity of meaning of son series 214
270 votre /vos 215
271 Examples of the other persons of the possessive adjectives 215
Indefinite determiners 217
272 Indefinite determiners – chaque, tout 217
Exercises 218
Chapter 8 Prepositions 221
273 Prepositions 221
274 French prepositions 221
Prepositions which link 221
275 Prepositions which link 221
276 Zero preposition 222
277 Examples of verb + zero preposition 222
278 faire, entendre, envoyer, laisser, regarder, sentir, voir 223
`a 224
279 `a linking an adjective to a following infinitive 224
280 Examples of `a linking an adjective to a following infinitive 224
281 `a linking a noun to a following infinitive 225
282 Examples of `a linking a noun to a following infinitive 225
283 `a linking a verb to a following infinitive 225
284 Examples of `a linking a verb to a following infinitive 226
285 contraindre, forcer, obliger 227
286 `a linking a verb to a noun 227
287 Examples of `a linking a verb to a noun 228
de 228
288 de linking an adjective to a following infinitive 228
289 Examples of de linking an adjective to a following infinitive 229
290 de linking a noun to a following infinitive 229
291 Examples of de linking a noun to a following infinitive 229
292 de linking a verb to a following infinitive 230
293 Examples of de linking a verb to a following infinitive 231
294 de linking a verb to a noun 231
295 Examples of de linking a verb to a noun 232
296 Verbs with direct object and de with a second noun 232
297 Examples of verbs with direct object and de with a second noun 233
298 Verbs involving `a with a noun and de with an infinitive 233
299 Examples of verbs involving `a with a noun and de with an infinitive 234
300 Verbs with variable prepositional usage 234
301 Examples of verbs with variable prepositional usage 234
Prepositional expressions 242
302 Prepositional expressions 242
303 `a 242
304 `a indicating place 242
305 `a indicating time 244
306 `a indicating manner 244
307 `a to mark responsibility 245
308 `a expressing measurement 245
309 `a expressing a compound phenomenon 245
310 `a + infinitive 246
311 `a cause de = because of 246
312 `a condition de = subject to 246
313 `a cˆot´e de = next to, in comparison with 246
314 afin de = in order to 246
315 `a force de = by virtue of 247
316 `a moins de = unless 247
317 `a partir de = from 247
318 apr`es /d’apr`es = after, according to, from 247
319 `a travers = through 248
320 au bout de = at the end of 248
321 au cours de = during, in the course of 248
322 au-del`a de = beyond, apart from 248
323 au-dessous de = underneath, beneath, below 248
324 au-dessus de = over, above 248
325 au lieu de = instead of 249
326 aupr`es de = in relation to, in comparison with, among 249
327 autour de = around, round, about 249
328 avant = before (of time) 249
329 avec = with 249
330 chez = at the home of, among 249
331 compris /y compris = including 250
332 contre = against 250
333 dans = in, from, during 250
334 de 251
335 de indicating possession 251
336 de expressing place, origin 252
337 de expressing the idea of containing, measurement 253
338 de with expressions of quantity 253
339 de expressing function, material 254
340 de expressing time 254
341 de indicating cause 255
342 de expressing manner 255
343 de introducing the attribute of a noun or pronoun 255
344 de introducing an infinitive 256
345 de forming expressions 256
346 de crainte de /de peur de = for fear of 257
347 de fac¸on `a /de mani`ere `a = so as to 257
348 depuis = since 257
349 derri`ere = behind 258
350 d`es = from 258
351 devant = in front of, before, faced with 258
352 du cˆot´e de = as for 259
353 du haut de = from the top of 259
354 durant = for, during 259
355 en 259
356 en expressing position 260
357 en expressing time 260
358 en with clothing, materials, containers 261
359 en with names of languages and countries 262
360 en in fixed expressions 262
361 en-dehors de = outside, apart from 264
362 en d´epit de = in spite of 264
363 entre = between, among, through 264
364 envers = towards 265
365 environ = about 265
366 except´e = except for, apart from 265
367 face `a = opposite, facing 265
368 grˆace `a = thanks to 265
369 hors de = out of 266
370 jusqu’`a = as far as, until 266
371 le long de = along 266
372 lors de = during, at the time of 266
373 malgr´e = in spite of 266
374 par = through, by, per, on, in 266
375 par-dessous = underneath 267
376 par-dessus = over 268
377 parmi = among 268
378 par suite de = as a result of 268
379 pendant = for, during 268
380 pour = for 268
381 pr`es de = close to, near 269
382 quant `a = as for 269
383 sans = without 269
384 sauf = except for, apart from 270
385 selon = according to 270
386 sous = underneath, beneath 270
387 suivant = following 270
388 sur = on, over, about 270
389 vers = to, towards, about 271
390 Slight shifts in meaning brought out by varying the prepositions 272
391 Prepositional alternation 276
392 The interlocking of French and English prepositions 277
393 Prepositions with place names 278
Exercises 282
Chapter 9 Adverbs and adverbial expressions 285
394 The role of adverbs 285
395 Formation of adverbs 285
396 Meaning of adverbs 289
397 Position of adverbs 289
398 Adverbs of manner 291
399 Examples of adverbs of manner 293
400 Adverbs of place 294
401 Examples of adverbs of place 295
402 Adverbs of time 295
403 Comments on certain adverbs of time 297
404 Examples of adverbs of time 298
405 Adverbs of degree 298
406 Comments on certain adverbs of degree 299
407 Examples of adverbs of degree 300
408 assez, autant, beaucoup, bien, tant, tellement, trop 301
409 Comparative and superlative forms of adverbs 301
410 Adverbs of affirmation, negation and doubt 303
411 Examples of adverbs of affirmation, negation and doubt 304
412 Interrogative adverbs 305
413 Adverbs as connectors 305
414 Examples of connectors 306
Exercises 307
Chapter 10 Negation 309
415 Negation + verb 309
416 ne + negative particle – ne . . . pas = not 309
417 ne alone 313
418 ne . . . personne = no one, not anyone 314
419 ne . . . rien = nothing, not anything 315
420 ne . . . aucun = no, none 317
421 ne . . . nul = no, no one 317
422 ne . . . gu`ere = hardly, scarcely 318
423 ne . . . jamais = never 318
424 ne . . . plus = no longer, not any more 319
425 ne . . . que = only 320
426 ne . . . (pas) . . . ni . . . ni = neither . . . nor, not . . . or, not . . . either . . . or 320
427 pas alone = not 321
428 non = no, not 322
429 . . . pas non plus = neither, not . . . either, nor 322
430 Multiple negators 323
431 Omission of ne 323
Exercises 324
Chapter 11 Numerals 326
432 Cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers 326
433 Cardinal numbers 326
434 Use of et and hyphens with cardinal numbers 329
435 Pronunciation matters 330
436 When to use figures to express cardinal numbers 330
437 Approximate numbers 331
438 Fractions and decimals 332
439 Ordinal numbers 333
440 Telling the time 334
441 Dates 336
442 Miscellaneous matters 337
Exercises 338
Chapter 12 Sentences and clauses 339
Sentences 339
443 Sentences 339
444 Sentence types 340
Sentence structure 341
445 Sentence structure 341
Minor sentences and major sentences 341
446 Minor sentences 341
447 Major sentences 342
448 Simple sentences 343
449 Compound sentences 343
450 Complex sentences 344
451 Compound-complex sentences 345
452 Coordinating conjunctions 345
Clauses 347
453 Clauses 347
454 Clause types 348
455 Types of subordinate clauses 349
456 Causal clauses 349
457 Concessive clauses 350
458 Conditional clauses 351
459 Consecutive clauses 353
460 Final clauses 354
461 Manner clauses 355
462 Noun clauses 355
463 Highlighting with c’est 356
464 Relative clauses 357
465 Time clauses 360
466 Declarative clauses 363
467 Word order in declarative clauses 364
468 Inversion in declarative clauses 366
469 Highlighting 368
Interrogative sentences 368
470 Interrogative sentences 368
oui – non questions 369
471 oui – non questions 369
472 oui – non questions – 1: those involving inversion of the subject
and the verb 369
473 oui – non questions – 2: those involving est-ce que + direct order of
the subject and verb 371
474 oui – non questions – 3: those involving intonation only 371
475 Elliptical oui – non questions 372
Questions introduced by question words 372
476 Questions introduced by question words 372
477 Question words – pronouns 373
478 Question words – adjectives 376
479 Question words – adverbs 376
480 Elliptical questions without a question word but suggesting one 377
481 Indirect questions 378
482 Rhetorical questions 379
Exclamative sentences 380
483 Exclamative sentences 380
Punctuation 381
484 Punctuation 381
Exercises 384
Key to exercises 387
Bibliography 406
Index 407

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