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Paul McCreesh -《马太受难曲》(Bach: St Matthew Passion)Archiv[FLAC]

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    古典类型合唱
    发行时间2003年04月08日
  • 时间: 2012/07/10 19:31:22 发布 | 2012/07/11 13:16:34 更新
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专辑英文名Bach: St Matthew Passion
专辑中文名马太受难曲
别名BWV 244
艺术家Paul McCreesh
古典类型合唱
资源格式FLAC
版本Archiv
发行时间2003年04月08日
地区德国
语言德语
简介

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唱片公司:Archive
唱片编号:474 200-2
录音制式:DDD
资源出处:原版CD抓轨(FLAC+CUE)

专辑介绍:

引用
马太受难曲(Matthäuspassion) BWV 244,是一部清唱剧受难曲,由约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫创作,内容是根据马太福音里有关耶稣的受难。马太受难曲和约翰受难曲是巴赫两部完整的受难曲作品。整部作品演出时间长达3小时。这毫无疑问是巴赫创作生涯的顶峰之作,并且也是西方音乐上最重要的一部宗教音乐。

编制

作品为两个混声合唱团而写,(女高音,女中音,男高音,男低音)和乐器组(2支长笛或是 八孔长笛,2支巴洛克双簧管,2把巴洛克小提琴,中提琴,低音提琴)负责演出。现在则称为“双合唱团和管弦乐队”
在第 1 和 35段还要有Soprano in ripieno(合奏女高音)。演出传统上还会有儿童合唱团(作为两个合唱团中女声的对照),这还和巴赫当时的情况有关,当时在教堂只能动用童声女高音,(就是说男性假声唱女高音和女中音)。在其中一个版本中,这部分的声音甚至为管风琴所代替。受难曲描述耶穌被钉在十字架受难的宗教音乐,马太受难曲则是以圣经「马太福音」第26,27章为歌词的大型作品,共有「最后的晚餐」、「耶穌之死」共 68 首曲子所组成,总共写了三年之久。而演出时须有二个管弦乐团、数位演唱者与一个少年合唱团,加上管风琴伴奏,演奏全曲需要约三小时。

马太受难曲有以下独唱角色:

福音传教士 – 男高音
耶稣 – 男低音
加略人犹大 – 男低音
圣彼得 – 男低音
祭司长该亚法 – 男低音
本丢彼拉多 – 男低音
2 侍女 – 女高音
2 教士 – 男低音
彼拉多之妻 – 女高音
两位目击者 – 女中音和男高音


唱词

唱词一方面根据马太福音26和27章,另一方面则是巴洛克时期诗人克里斯蒂安·菲特烈·亨里奇 (又曰彼康德)的诗歌。

作品由相对较短的第一部分和长大的第二部分组成,在巴赫的时代,两者之间还有长达一小时的布道。

结构与象徵意义

作品的特殊编制来自於首演地点圣托马斯大教堂位於圣坛两侧的两架管风琴与诗班席,两个合唱团和管弦乐队产生出非常特殊的音响效果,两个合唱团会进行对话,扮演不同的角色,或是唱出作为省思的评论。值得一提的是开头和结尾两个大合唱。作品中有大量的长而深沉的咏叹调,表现了耶稣的受难。全曲共分六段剧情,以五首圣咏(Chorale)分隔。其中採用哈斯勒(Hans Leo Hassler, 1564–1612)於 1604 年所写的德国情歌旋律,由巴赫加上和声的圣咏 O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden,被称为「受难圣咏」(Passion Chorale),以不同的调性与歌词一共出现五次,是全曲的核心。这五首圣咏分别是

No. 15:Erkenne mich, mein Hüter

No. 17:Ich will hier bei dir stehen

No. 44:Befiehl du deine Wege

No. 54:O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden

No. 62:Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden

受难圣咏不但出现在圣难曲中,巴赫亦在其他作品当中使用,包括「圣诞神剧」也有使用到受难圣咏。

在马太受难曲中,巴赫使用了许多音乐象徵手法。例如耶稣的宣叙调有弦乐伴奏,被称为「光环」。而其他人则只有低音提琴伴奏。在耶穌被钉上十字架之后的最后一句话 - 大喊「Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?」(我的神,我的神, 为什么离弃我?)时,是全曲当中耶穌角色唯一没有光环的段落(No. 61a)

有很多研究试图找出曲中数字命理学意义,但现在认为,其中的一部分现象只是偶然巧合。

马太受难曲的创作过程
根据巴赫学者 Joshua Rifkin 於 1975 年发表於 The Musical Quarterly 的「The Chronology of Bach's Saint Matthew Passion」,马太受难曲应首演於 1727 年的受难日(Good Friday,1727/4/11),地点在圣汤马斯大教堂(St. Thomas Church),第二次演出是两年后的 1729 年的受难日(1729/4/25)。巴赫曾对马太受难曲做过几次改版,目前可听到的演出是以 1736 年的修订版为主。

巴赫在生时,马太受难曲并不受欢迎,甚至因为其中“歌剧般”的特质受到新教虔信主义的代表和莱比锡的市民敌视。当1829年3月11日孟德尔颂和柏林歌唱学院再度演出该作品时,巴赫也在德国复活了。20世纪诞生了很多伟大的马太受难曲录音,如富特文格勒,卡尔·李希特,卡拉扬,哈农考特,索尔蒂,汤·考普曼,赫尔穆特·李陵,加德纳都有留下非常优秀的诠释。


引用
Every year at least one new recording of Bach's St Matthew Passion is released. The question is: do we need a new recording every year? What do they offer that other recordings don't? With that very question starts the interview of Stephen Pettit with Paul McCreesh, printed in the booklet of this recording.
McCreesh underlines that his recording is different from all previous recordings in that it puts a theory about the performance of Bach's vocal works into practice. He refers to the view that Bach had only a limited number of singers at his disposal who were able to sing really complicated music. Therefore his St Matthew Passion should be performed with one voice per part. This theory - usually referred to as 'OVPP' - has been developed by Joshua Rifkin and Andrew Parrott after a period of intensive research, the results of which were published in a book under the title 'The Bach Choir'.
Although Paul McCreesh says that with his performance he doesn't just want to prove an academic theory, nevertheless it is good to have an illustration of the OVPP-theory, which potentially could turn the performance practice of Bach's music upside down.

Apart from the scoring with solo voices it is the choice of tempo which has upset many people. In particular the fast tempo of the opening chorus has caused strong controversy. This seems a little strange, since it is only a small part of the whole work. But in many ways it sets the tone for the whole recording, and the way the opening chorus is dealt with here, sums up the character of the performance as a whole pretty well, and - in my judgement - what is wrong with it.

For the opening chorus ("Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen"), McCreesh needs 6'06". In comparison Leonhardt, in his recording with the Tölzer Knabenchor and La Petite Bande, needs 8'29". But the main difference is not the tempo but the way the character of the chorus is realised. Leonhardt is able to create a strong dramatic tension by clear rhythmic accents and sensible dynamic differentation. In comparison McCreesh's performance is as flat as a pancake. There is no differentiation within the chorus, apart from the fact that the second half is louder than the first half. But there is no tension or drama here.
In the interview in the booklet, Stephen Pettit states: "Your opening chorus goes with quite an irreverent swing." The funny thing is that McCreesh's interpretation doesn't swing at all, and that Leonhardt, with his much slower tempo, realises a much stronger swing, since he stresses the important notes, in contrast to McCreesh. He states: "All Bach's music, fast or slow, has an almost visceral connection to the dance." That may be true, but then I would expect to hear that in McCreesh's recording. I don't, not in the opening chorus, not elsewhere. (Just compare his interpretation of the aria "Mache dich, mein Herze, rein" (65) with that by Leonhardt, and the difference is all too clear.)

The problem I have with the opening chorus is not that the tempo is fast, but that it is undramatic, bland and misses the point completely.
It reveals a lack of understanding of this particular piece, Bach's St Matthew Passion, its theological meaning and liturgical function and - in particular German - baroque music in general.

In the interview McCreesh continues: "Why should we require the first chorus to be slow and solemn, when it is above else celebratory? There's an almost ecstatic desire to share in the retelling of the Passion story."
This is why it should be solemn (which doesn't imply 'slow'). It is a so-called 'exordium', which announces what is going to happen and calls on the congregation to focus on the story of the Passion. The Passion of Christ is the heart of Lutheran theology, often characterised as 'theology of the Cross'. The Passion was part of the liturgy and aimed at making the congregation 'relive', as it were, Christ's Passion, and that way be reminded once again of its own sins and the necessity of Jesus' suffering and death.
But Bach goes even further. To the madrigalian text he adds the chorale "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig." This chorale refers to the Passion as a task which is already fulfilled. But it also describes bluntly the horrors fulfilling that task required: "Am Stamm des Kreuzes geschlachtet" (slaughtered on the cross's stem) and "Wiewohl du warst verachtet" (however much you were despised). By adding this chorale Bach gives an overall picture of the whole story of the Passion in its horrible intensity. The chorale is also very blunt in mentioning the causes of all these terrible things: "All Sünd hast du getragen, sonst müßten wir verzagen" (All sin for our sake bearing, else would we die despairing). It brings the Passion very close to the congregation. Nobody can be a neutral bystander.
I wouldn't describe that as 'celebration', but rather as 'remembrance' or 'commemoration'. Bach's music makes the 'lamento' character of the opening chorus abundantly clear. And that 'lamento' isn't just about the Passion itself, but also about what causes it: human sinfulness.

The performance of the opening chorus demonstrates a number of other shortcomings of the recording as a whole.
Generally all notes are treated equally. There is no differentiation between the important and the less important notes, known as 'good' and 'bad' notes respectively. It is first and foremost the text which gives the clue as to which notes are 'good' and which are 'bad'.
The baroque principle of music as 'speech' is ignored. There is too much legato singing, a lack of clear phrasing and articulation on the basis of the text. There is no differentation whatsoever within the chorales, no stressing of particular words, too little variation in tempo and dynamics.
In particular the recitatives are suffering from this approach. The Evangelist is basically a reporter who tells a story to an audience. He should speak rather than sing. He should stress some syllables and words, just like a speaker does. Mark Padmore doesn't. But, probably in an attempt to underline the dramatic character of the events, he screams a lot. But if you scream all the time people won't pay attention anymore to what you have to say.

There is a general ignorance of the rhetorical aspects of this work and Bach's use of the Affekt. The performance of the arias and the accompanied recitatives which precede some of them is generally bland and flat, with little interpretation of the text.
This doesn't apply to the singers only. The instrumentalists should know what the texts are about as well. The text is decisive for the way the instrumental parts should be played. I haven't noticed a great deal of understanding from the players in this recording. Either they don't understand what they are dealing with - which I find hard to believe - or they just don't know what to do with it. A general blandness and lack of differentation is omnipresent. The players just play - but even instruments should speak and contribute to telling the story.

Two issues are remaining.
First: the interview with Paul McCreesh in the booklet. I can't say the tone of it is very sympathetic, to put it mildly. He too often seems to forget that the OVPP-concept is still a theory, and not a proven fact. And his dismissal of everyone who doesn't embrace that theory is a little simplistic.
I have already talked about the misunderstandings regarding Bach's music, demonstrated by McCreesh's remarks about the opening chorus.
But I am also surprised by the answer to the question regarding the use of boys' voices.
"If you want to emulate the scale of sound that Bach knew, shouldn't you be using boys for the top lines?"
"It I felt we could find boys who could sing half as well as today's best Baroque singers, I would certainly consider it. But since voices break so much earlier today there's probably no boy on earth who could make emotional sense of the music, even if they are up to the technical demands. I don't want to use boys because they can sing nicely, sound cute and look sweet."
This is said by someone who earlier in the interview states: "(...) if you play with old instruments, there's a not unreasonable supposition that you are taking historical evidence seriously; so it is a little surprising if you don't take the same attitude with the voices. There is certainly the possibility that the result can be half-cooked."
Absolutely correct, although I dare to say that this recording is less than half-cooked. But this answer is in complete contradiction to his dismissal of the use of boys' voices. He doesn't question the technical ability of boys to be able to sing Bach's music in the first place. He dismisses their emotional ability to do so. That is very strange, since there are examples of the opposite, as the recording by Leonhardt proves. If you listen to this recording there is no doubt that all singers are technically capable. But are they able to make "emotional sense of the music"? I don't think so. If you compare the performances of McCreesh's ladies and Leonhardt's boys in regard to the emotional interpretation of the soprano parts, Leonhardt's boys win hands down. (Listen to the recitative "Er hat uns allen wohlgetan" (48) and the aria "Aus Liebe" (49) - and decide for yourself who is expressing the text better, Deborah York or Christian Fliegner.)
There is nothing in the music of Bach which a good, musically intelligent and sensible boy singer can't grasp emotionally.
I haven't heard anything about McCreesh approaching Gerhard Schmidt-Gaden, the conductor of the Tölzer Knabenchor and asking him if he had any boy in his choir who would be able to do the job. I am afraid laziness and prejudice is hidden here behind a curtain of artistic arguments.

The second issue is the vocal ensemble. With it we return to the main 'raison d'être' of this recording: the one-voice-per-part practice.
In a way performing the St Matthew Passion with a choir is much easier than with a small vocal ensemble. The members of a choir work together for a long time, and the conductor tries to develop a certain 'sound' which can survive personnel changes in its ranks. It is remarkable how a choir can keep a specific sound over a long period of time. The Collegium Vocale of Philippe Herreweghe is a good example.
A vocal ensemble is much more difficult. If one takes an existing vocal ensemble - a madrigal ensemble, for example - there is no guarantee that all members are up to the job of singing technically and emotionally demanding solo parts as those in the St Matthew Passion. On the other hand, bringing together a number of solo singers creates another problem: how to turn them into a vocal ensemble which is able to sing the tutti parts? For this recording McCreesh has chosen the second option. It doesn't work, which is clearly demonstrated in the opening chorus. The voices don't really blend, some use more vibrato than others and the balance within the 'ensemble' isn't ideal. You don't get an 'ensemble' by just bringing together a bunch of singers. The fact that they are all good individually doesn't necessarily make them good together.
A performance like this can only succeed when the vocal ensemble is just as good as choirs like the Tölzer Knabenchor or Philippe Herreweghe's Collegium Vocale. McCreesh's singers are far away from that standard. Of the vocal ensembles I know only Cantus Cölln could be able to give a really good OVPP-performance of Bach's vocal works.

This recording can't compete with the best already on the market. That has nothing to do with the fact that this recording has been made with one singer per part, although I suspect that some people who don't like the OVPP-approach or are just not convinced that the theory behind it is true, will use it to support their scepticism. But they are wrong. I believe that if Paul McCreesh had used a full choir of - say - 16 or more singers, the result would be just as dreadful.
This interpretation is a failure and shows a fundamental lack of knowledge regarding the very nature of Bach's music. It is a shame that this failure is presented with a self-confidence that isn't justified.


引用
Paul McCreesh is founder and artistic director of the Gabrieli Consort & Players, with whom he has established himself at the highest level in the period instrument field; he is recognised for his authoritative and innovative performances on the concert platform and the opera house. He is artistic director of the Wratislavia Cantans Festival in Wrocław, Poland and of the Brinkburn Festival in England. With the Gabrieli Consort and Players, Paul McCreesh has performed in major concert halls and festivals across the world. In 2005 Loughborough University conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters, honoris causa, on Paul McCreesh.



专辑曲目

Disc 1:
1. No.1 Chorus I/II: "Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen"
2. No.2 Evangelist, Jesus: "Da Jesus diese Rede vollendet hatte"
3. No.3 Choral: "Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen"
4. No.4 Evangelist, Chorus I/II, Jesus: "Da versammelten sich die Hohenpriester"
5. No.5 Recitative (Alto): "Du lieber Heiland du"
6. No.6 Aria (Alto): "Buss und Reu"
7. No.7 Evangelist, Judas: "Da ging hin der Zwölfen einer"
8. No.8 Aria (Soprano): "Blute nur, du liebes Herz"
9. No.9 Evangelist, Chorus I, Jesus: "Aber am ersten Tage der süssen Brot"
10. No.10 Choral: "Ich bin's, ich sollte büssen"
11. No.11 Evangelist, Jesus, Judas: "Er antwortete und sprach"
12. No.12 Recitative (Soprano): "Wiewohl mein Herz in Tränen schwimmt"
13. No.13 Aria (Soprano): "Ich will dir mein Herz schenken"
14. No.14 Evangelist, Jesus: "Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten"
15. No.15 Choral: "Erkenne mich, mein Hüter"
16. No.16 Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus: "Petrus aber antwortete"
17. No.17 Choral: "Ich will hier bei dir stehen"
18. No.18 Evangelist, Jesus: "Da kam Jesus mit ihnen zu einem Hofe"
19. No.19 Recitative (Tenor, Chorus II): "O Schmerz! hier zittert das gequälte Herz"
20. No.20 Aria (Tenor, Chorus II): "Ich will bei meinem Jesu wachen"
21. No.21 Evangelist, Jesus: "Und ging hin ein wenig"
22. No.22 Recitative (Bass): "Der Heiland fällt vor seinem Vater nieder"
23. No.23 Aria (Bass): "Gerne will ich mich bequemen"
24. No.24 Evangelist, Jesus: "Und er kam zu seinen Jüngern"
25. No.25 Choral: "Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit"
26. No.26 Evangelist, Jesus, Judas: "Und er kam und fand sie aber schlafend"
27. No.27 Aria (Soprano, Alto, Chorus II): "So ist mein Jesus nun gefangen" - Chorus I/II: "Sind Blitze, sind Donner"
28. No.28 Evangelist, Jesus: "Und siehe, einer aus denen"
29. No.29 Choral: "O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß"
30. No.30 Aria (Alto, Chorus II): "Ach nun ist mein Jesu hin"
31. No.31 Evangelist: "Die aber Jesum gegriffen hatten"
32. No.32 Choral: "Mir hat die Welt trüglich gericht"
33. No.33 Evangelist, Pontifex, Testis I/II: "Und wiewohl viel falsche Zeugen herzutraten"
34. No.34 Recitative (Tenor): "Mein Jesus schweigt zu falschen Lügen stille"
35. No.35 Aria (Tenor): "Geduld"3:41No.35 Aria (Tenor): "Geduld"

Disc 2:
1. No.36 Evangelist, Pontifex, Jesus, Chorus I/II: "Und der Hohepriester antwortete"
2. No.37 Choral: "Wer hat dich so geschlagen"
3. No.38 Evangelist, Ancilla I/II, Petrus, Chorus II: "Petrus aber sass draussen im Palast"
4. No.39 Aria (Alto): "Erbarme dich"
5. No.40 Choral: "Bin ich gleich von dir gewichen"
6. No.41 Evangelist, Judas, Chorus I/II, Pontifex I/II: "Des Morgens aber hielten alle Hohepriester"
7. No.42 Aria (Bass): "Gebt mir meinen Jesum wieder"
8. No.43 Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus: "Sie hielten aber einen Rat"
9. No.44 Choral: "Befiel du deine Wege"
10. No.45 Evangelist, Pilatus, Uxor Pilati, Chorus I/II: "Auf das Fest aber hatte der Landpfleger Gewohnheit"
11. No.46 Choral: "Wie wunderbarlich ist doch diese Strafe"
12. No.47 Evangelist, Pilatus: "Der Landpfleger sagte"
13. No.48 Recitative (Soprano): "Er hat uns allen wohl getan"
14. No.49 Aria (Soprano): "Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben"
15. No.50 Evangelist, Chorus I/II, Pilatus: "Sie schrieen aber noch mehr"
16. No.51 Recitative (Alto): "Erbarm es Gott"
17. No.52 Aria (Alto): "Können Tränen meiner Wangen"
18. No.53 Evangelist, Chorus I/II: "Da nahmen die Kriegsknechte"
19. No.54 Choral: "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden"
20. No.55 Evangelist: "Und da sie ihn verspottet hatten"
21. No.56 Recitative (Bass): "Ja freilich will in uns das Fleisch und Blut"
22. No.57 Aria (Bass): "Komm, süsses Kreuz"
23. No.58 Evangelist, Chorus I/II: "Und da sie an die Stätte kamen"
24. No.59 Recitative (Alto): "Ach Golgatha"
25. No.60 Aria (Alto, Chorus II): "Sehet, Jesus hat die Hand"
26. No.61 Evangelist, Jesus, Chorus I/II: "Und von der sechsten Stunde an"
27. No.62 Choral: "Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden"
28. No.63 Evangelist, Chorus I/II: "Und siehe da, der Vorhang im Tempel zerriss"
29. No.64 Recitative (Bass): "Am Abend, da es kühle war"
30. No.65 Aria (Bass): "Mache dich, mein Herze, rein"
31. No.66 Evangelist, Chorus I/II, Pilatus: "Und Joseph nahm den Leib"
32. No.67 Recitative (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass, Chorus II): "Nun ist der Herr zur Ruh gebracht"
33. No.68 Chorus I/II: "Wir setzen uns mit Tränen nieder"

正在读取……

这里是其它用户补充的资源(我也要补充):

cb91 2012/07/10 19:35:36 补充
德语歌词及英文翻译,转自网络。

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