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《Word Origins: The Secret Histories of English Words from A to Z》文字版[PDF]

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  • 摘要:
    图书分类外语
    出版社A&C Black
    发行时间2005年
    语言英文
  • 时间: 2012/03/05 07:29:53 发布 | 2012/03/05 13:40:19 更新
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中文名Word Origins: The Secret Histories of English Words from A to Z
作者John Ayto
图书分类外语
资源格式PDF
版本文字版
出版社A&C Black
书号0713674989
发行时间2005年
地区美国
语言英文
简介

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内容介绍:

The average contemporary English speaker knows 50,000 words. Yet stripped down to its origins, this apparently huge vocabulary is in reality much smaller, derived from Latin, French and the Germanic languages. It is estimated that every year, 800 neologisms are added to the English language: acronyms (nimby), blended words (motel), and those taken from foreign languages (savoir-faire). Laid out in an A-Z format with detailed cross references, and written in a style that is both authoritative and accessible, Word Origins is a valuable historical guide to the English language.
  
This in-depth exploration of the English language covers every nuance and curiosity of this constantly evolving linguistic pastiche. It is estimated that every year 800 neologisms are added to the English language, and include acronyms (NIMBY, Not In My Backyard), blended words (motel), and those taken from foreign languages (savoir-faire). Laid out in an a-to-z format with detailed cross-references and written to appeal equally to students, etymologists, and nonnative speakers, this historical guide is an invaluable resource for this truly global lingua franca.

引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 07:35 AM) *
(新浪博客 Andrew)
三本词源字典那本更适合初学者?
..............
第三本,也是我着重向初学者推荐的就是
Word Origins -The Secret Histories of English Words from A to Z.

该字典的涵盖词汇量比较少,但是简单易懂,每个词的介绍都是一片小的段落,逻辑性较强,词义发展解读的跳跃性不大,能比较清晰地了解每个词的词义以及变体怎么发展的,对初步建立词源发展的思路有较好的帮助。

举例如下:
See :English has two words see. The older is the verb, ‘perceive visually’ [OE]. Like its Germanic cousins, German sehen, Dutch zien, and Swedish and Danish se, it goes back to a prehistoric *sekhwan, which was descended from an Indo-European base *seq-. This may have been the same *seq- that produced Latin sequī ‘follow’ (source of English sequence, sue, etc), in which case see would denote etymologically ‘follow with the eyes’. See ‘diocese’ originally signified ‘bishop’s throne’. It came via Anglo-Norman se from Vulgar Latin *sedem ‘seat’, descendant of classical Latin sēdem, the accusative case of sēdes ‘seat’. This in turn went back to the Indo- European base *sed- ‘sit’, which also produced English sit.
SIGHT; SEAT, SIT

引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 08:13 AM) *
第二个常用的词源字典就是
在线词源字典 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php

这本字典相对于kelin’s字典来讲,就简单易读,有其特有的专有词缩写,但是基本的思路比较清晰,学习起来比较方便,词之间的来龙去脉基本用句子连接贯穿起来了,但是对于初学者来讲也许不能清楚的理解其意义的发展与扩展。该词典的涵盖词汇量也很大。

举例如下:
See : O.E. seon (contracted class V strong verb; past tense seah, pp. sewen), from P.Gmc. *sekhwanan (cf. O.S., O.H.G. sehan, M.H.G., Ger. sehen, O.Fris. sia, M.Du. sien, O.N. sja, Goth. saihwan), from PIE base *sekw- "to see," which is "probably" the same base that produced words for "say" in Greek and Latin, and also words for "follow" (cf. L. sequor), but "opinions differ in regard to the semantic starting-point and sequences" [Buck]. Thus see could originally mean "follow with the eyes." Used in M.E. to mean "behold in the imagination or in a dream" (c.1200), "to recognize the force of (a demonstration)," also c.1200, "often with ref. to metaphorical light or eyes" [OED], and "to learn by reading" (early 15c.). Past tense saw developed from O.E. pl. sawon.
引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 08:06 AM) *
(新浪博客 Andrew)
Klein’s comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language 点击此处下载

该词典涵盖词汇量非常大,基本上我们能遇到的单词这里都有所讲解,但是相对来讲其专业性较强。涵盖语种比较多,而且希腊单词保留原来的希腊字母,没有改写成拉丁字母,不熟悉希腊字母的同学可能辨认起来很费力,举例如下:

See : tr. And intr. V., to perceive with the eyes. – ME.seen, sen, fr, OE. seon,rel. to OS., OHG. sehan, MHG., G. sehen, OFris. sia, MDu. Sien, Du. zien, ON. sja,Norw. sjaa, Dan., Swed. se, Goth. saihan, and prob. Cogn. With Hitt. Sakwa-,’eye’; fr. Teut. Base *sehw-, corresponding to I.-E. base *seqw-, ‘to see’, which is etymologically identical with *seq w- in the sense ‘to point out, to say’. See say, v., and cp. Seem, sight.

作者介绍:

John Ayto is an experienced lexicographer and author of many language titles. He is Chief Etymologist on the Bloomsbury English Dictionary.

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