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《克莱因英语综合词源词典》(Klein's Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language)扫描版[PDF]

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  • 摘要:
    图书分类外语
    出版社Elsevier Publishing Compan
    发行时间1971年
    语言英文
  • 时间: 2012/03/05 05:24:49 发布 | 2012/03/05 13:41:01 更新
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中文名克莱因英语综合词源词典
原名Klein's Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language
作者Ernest Klein
图书分类外语
资源格式PDF
版本扫描版
出版社Elsevier Publishing Compan
书号9780444409300
发行时间1971年
地区以色列
语言英文
简介

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内容介绍:

Review
Aside from its outstanding value and importance to students of linguistics, Dr. Klein's work is a source of fascinating reading and browsing to anyone with an interest in language.
The American Translators Association Chronicle

  Although during the last sixty years philology has attained a high degree of development, looking at the literature available, Etymology appears only to have reached the level of philology at the turn of the century. This dictionary is the first major work of its kind in the 20th century, and as such, embodies the findings of modern philological scholarship. For example, full reference is made to Tocharian, the extinct language rediscovered at the end of the Nineteenth Century which often provides the key to the important transition form between the Old-Indian and the Indo-European group of languages to which English belongs. Several hundred words previously defined as being "of unknown etymology" are fully analyzed.The etymology of words of Semitic origin in the English language is given, the transliteration of Semitic words is based on a concept which renders exactly every consonant, vowel and diacritical sign. Hybrids are not only referred to, but in many cases a new, correctly formed word is suggested. Special attention is paid to loan translations (important elements in the cultural interrelationship between the nations) especially in regard to their passage from one language to another. The dictionary also provides the etymologies of proper and mythological names. Exhaustive cross-referencing, allows the reader to trace all words derived from one and the same base.

引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 08:06 AM) *
(新浪博客 Andrew)
Klein’s comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language

该词典涵盖词汇量非常大,基本上我们能遇到的单词这里都有所讲解,但是相对来讲其专业性较强。涵盖语种比较多,而且希腊单词保留原来的希腊字母,没有改写成拉丁字母,不熟悉希腊字母的同学可能辨认起来很费力,举例如下:

See : tr. And intr. V., to perceive with the eyes. – ME.seen, sen, fr, OE. seon,rel. to OS., OHG. sehan, MHG., G. sehen, OFris. sia, MDu. Sien, Du. zien, ON. sja,Norw. sjaa, Dan., Swed. se, Goth. saihan, and prob. Cogn. With Hitt. Sakwa-,’eye’; fr. Teut. Base *sehw-, corresponding to I.-E. base *seqw-, ‘to see’, which is etymologically identical with *seq w- in the sense ‘to point out, to say’. See say, v., and cp. Seem, sight.

引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 08:13 AM) *
第二个常用的词源字典就是
在线词源字典 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php

这本字典相对于kelin’s字典来讲,就简单易读,有其特有的专有词缩写,但是基本的思路比较清晰,学习起来比较方便,词之间的来龙去脉基本用句子连接贯穿起来了,但是对于初学者来讲也许不能清楚的理解其意义的发展与扩展。该词典的涵盖词汇量也很大。

举例如下:
See : O.E. seon (contracted class V strong verb; past tense seah, pp. sewen), from P.Gmc. *sekhwanan (cf. O.S., O.H.G. sehan, M.H.G., Ger. sehen, O.Fris. sia, M.Du. sien, O.N. sja, Goth. saihwan), from PIE base *sekw- "to see," which is "probably" the same base that produced words for "say" in Greek and Latin, and also words for "follow" (cf. L. sequor), but "opinions differ in regard to the semantic starting-point and sequences" [Buck]. Thus see could originally mean "follow with the eyes." Used in M.E. to mean "behold in the imagination or in a dream" (c.1200), "to recognize the force of (a demonstration)," also c.1200, "often with ref. to metaphorical light or eyes" [OED], and "to learn by reading" (early 15c.). Past tense saw developed from O.E. pl. sawon.

引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 07:35 AM) *
(新浪博客 Andrew)

三本词源字典那本更适合初学者?

..............

第三本,也是我着重向初学者推荐的就是
Word Origins -The Secret Histories of English Words from A to Z. 点击此处下载

该字典的涵盖词汇量比较少,但是简单易懂,每个词的介绍都是一片小的段落,逻辑性较强,词义发展解读的跳跃性不大,能比较清晰地了解每个词的词义以及变体怎么发展的,对初步建立词源发展的思路有较好的帮助。

举例如下:
See :English has two words see. The older is the verb, ‘perceive visually’ [OE]. Like its Germanic cousins, German sehen, Dutch zien, and Swedish and Danish se, it goes back to a prehistoric *sekhwan, which was descended from an Indo-European base *seq-. This may have been the same *seq- that produced Latin sequī ‘follow’ (source of English sequence, sue, etc), in which case see would denote etymologically ‘follow with the eyes’. See ‘diocese’ originally signified ‘bishop’s throne’. It came via Anglo-Norman se from Vulgar Latin *sedem ‘seat’, descendant of classical Latin sēdem, the accusative case of sēdes ‘seat’. This in turn went back to the Indo- European base *sed- ‘sit’, which also produced English sit.
SIGHT; SEAT, SIT

引用(依然下午 @ 2012-03-05, 05:33 AM) *
词源的功能-Klein's 的序言(新浪博客 Andrew 整理)

Klein’s comprehensive Etymological dictionary Of the English language

Introduction

Since my youth I have devoted myself to philology, with special regard to etymology.
The reasons inducing me to write “A comprehensive etymological Dictionary of the English Language” may be summed up as follows:

It is a well-known fact that in the course of the last sixty years philology has attained a high degree of development. It is so much the more to be regretted that modern lexicography has remained far behind the achievements of philology. As a rule, even the most authoritative English etymological dictionaries give such etymologies as reflect the level reached by philology about half a century ago. In most cases etymologies given up by serious science long ago are still wandering out of one dictionary into another and continue living with tenacity, apparently ignoring the truths established in the field of philology in the course of the latter decades.

One example may suffice to prove this. Despite the fact that Tocharian(this language extinct long ago but newly discovered at the end of the 19 century) occupies a very important place among the Indo-European languages, Tocharian references appear only quite exceptionally in the etymological dictionaries of the English language. This is so much the more striking, because Tocharian may help us understand the development of many a word in the different indo-European languages, inasmuch as the words of the Tocharian language often represent the transitory form-‘the missing link’-between the Old Indian and the other Indo-European languages. In this dictionary Tocharian words are regularly referred to together with the other Indo-European equivalents.

English belonging to the great family of the Indo-European languages, it is quite evident that in tracing any word to its source, an etymological dictionary must take into consideration all the important cognates of this word in the other Indo-European languages. If we want to understand the history of an English word, we must compare this word with as many correspondences as possible.

Most etymological dictionaries do not pay enough attention to this circumstance and therefore cite equivalents from the kindred languages quite at random, often enumerating the less important ones but omitting such as had a decisive influence upon the form of the word treated or upon the development of its meaning. This dictionary tries to be a dependable guide to the reader in this respect too, by giving him all the necessary information about the origin, formation and sense development of any word that might interest him.

The scientific value of most etymological dictionaries is much impaired by the circumstance that their authors are not familiar with the structure of the Semitic languages, a fact thrown into relief by the inconsistencies of the transliteration of Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic words, on the one hand, and by the lack of any etymological analysis of these words, on the other. In this dictionary the words of Semitic origin-about 75 in number-are fully analyzed: they are traced to their etyma, the cognates are given, the stem is distinguished from the prefixes and suffixes added to it, etc. In brief: the words of Semitic origin are treated exactly as the Indo-European words. This is why my dictionary may also serve as a preliminary work for an etymological dictionary of the Semitic languages themselves.

In all etymological dictionaries we frequently come across such words as are declared to be “of unknown origin”, even in cases when the etymology of such words can be established beyond any doubt. In many other cases the etymology is not given either, but the origin of the respective word is referred to by such vague terms as ‘of uncertain etymology’, or ‘probably of Oriental origin’, etc, whereas their provenance is very well known. My dictionary contains the etymology of several hundred such words.

Some other features of this dictionary:

What the elements are to chemistry, what the sounds are to music, are words to language. However, words are not only the element of a language but also of the history of the people speaking it. They are important milestones along the way leading to the majestic Palace of Human Knowledge.

One of the basic features of this dictionary is that—in contradistinction to other etymological dictionaries—its aim is not only to give the history of words , but togive also history in words. This dictionary is the first attempt to give the history of human civilization and culture condensed in the etymological data of words. We not only speak but think and even dream in words. Languages is a mirror in which the whole spiritual development of mankind reflects itself. Therefore, in tracing words to their origin, we are tracing simultaneously civilization and culture to their real roots.

Another important aim that I set to myself in composing this dictionary was to mirror in it the history of the humanities and sciences . Since the history of a word is at the same time the history of the thing denoted or the idea expressed by that word it is obvious that by giving the history of the technical terms of any branch of science we also give the history of that branch of science itself. In consideration of this fact one of the goals of an etymological dictionary should be to deal with the history of scientific technical terms in a manner that would enable the reader to reconstruct though them the history of the various branches of the humanities and sciences. This dictionary represents the first attempt to live up to this goal. E.g. in order to know the important phases of the development of medicine one will only have to look up the medical terms occurring this dictionary.

作者介绍:

Ernest Klein, OC (July 26, 1899 - February 4, 1983) was a Romanian-born Canadian linguist, author, and rabbi.

Klein was born in Szatmárnémeti (present-day Satu Mare), in Partium — a region of Austria-Hungary at the time, it is now in Romania; he received his PhD at the University of Vienna in 1925. He was the rabbi of the Nové Zámky community, Czechoslovakia, from 1938 Érsekújvár, Hungary, now Slovak Republic, from 1929 to 1944. In 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz and later to the Dachau concentration camp, where he was liberated. After the war he served as rabbi in Satu Mare. After emigrating to France, he was a rabbi of the synagogue on Rue de Montevideo in Paris (1950–1951) and in 1952 he emigrated to Canada, where he held the post of Rabbi of Congregation Beth Yitshak in Toronto until his death.

He is the author of A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (1966–1967).

He is also the author of A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English (1987), an English-language etymological dictionary of Hebrew to which he devoted the last ten years of his life.

In 1978, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada.

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