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《冷战风云录》(Perspectives : Cold War)【感谢纪录片之家的两位字幕组英雄!】[DVDRip]

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    发行时间1998年
    地区美国
    语言英语
  • 时间: 2010/04/18 23:14:59 发布 | 2011/05/13 22:28:34 更新
  • 分类: 综艺  纪录片 

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中文名冷战风云录
英文名Perspectives : Cold War
资源格式DVDRip
版本【感谢纪录片之家的两位字幕组英雄!】
发行时间1998年
制作发行CNN
有线电视新闻网
地区美国
语言英语
简介

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说明:

1、本资料由驴友xuteng和青光弘毅提供全部资料上传做源,请大家将所有感谢献给他们!

2、本资料包含大量原始视频、音频、采访资料,请珍惜和爱护资源。无论是赞成还是反对,都基于对史实材料的消化和分析。欢迎就材料内容展开理性分析,做出有益拓展公众视野的评论。本帖不欢迎感情过剩的标语和口号。

3、纪录片之家hareless和小开心正在逐步翻译中文字幕,foomaverick提供24集英文剧本链接及其相关信息:http://www2.stjohnsprep.org/teachers/wbritton/cnn_cold_war_transcripts.html ,另外这里有他翻译的另一部纪录片原创字幕,原片可以通过刀疤天使进行搜索。特此向他们致谢!

4、推荐使用刀疤天使Mod+DLP反吸血屏蔽,它们在下载少源资料方便有独特优势。


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冷战(英语:Cold War,俄语:Холодная Война)是指美国和苏联及他们的盟友在1945年至1990年代间在政治和外交上的对抗、衝突和竞争。由於第二次世界大战刚结束,在这段时期,虽然分歧和衝突严重,但对抗双方都尽力避免导致世界范围的大规模战争(世界大战)爆发,其对抗通常通过局部代理人战争、科技和军备竞赛、外交竞争等「冷」方式进行,即「相互遏制,却又不诉诸武力」,因此称之为「冷战」。
目录
[隐藏]

* 1 阵营
* 2 恐怖平衡
* 3 特徵
* 4 历史
* 5 相关主题

[编辑] 阵营

美国的盟友是西欧、加拿大、日本、澳大利亚等,而苏联的盟友是东欧国家和中华人民共和国(直到中苏分裂) 、越南、蒙古人民共和国等。这个词起源於1947年4月16日伯纳德·巴鲁克在南卡罗来纳州哥伦比亚的一次演説。此外,1946年邱吉尔访问美国,在这次访问中他发表了著名的铁幕演说:「从波罗的海边的什切青到亚得里亚海边的的里雅斯特,一幅横贯欧洲大陆的铁幕已经拉下」。间接表示冷战的开始。
[编辑] 恐怖平衡

这场全面的「东方对西方」的战争并未真正爆发,最大的原因是由於双方都拥有大量的核子武器,一旦直接衝突可能导致全人类毁灭,因此双方都尽力避免发生全面的「热」战(请见相互保证毁灭),实际上只是在经济、哲学、文化、社会和政治立场方面产生严重对立:西方指责东方不民主、极权主义、极权铁幕和共产专制,企图将民主国家纳入极权专制的统治,而东方则批评西方是中产阶级资本主义、帝国主义、剥削劳工。
[编辑] 特徵
柏林围墙

冷战从第二次世界大战结束开始,随著八十年代苏联的经济危机,和戈巴契夫(戈巴卓夫)的民主改革,促成共产国家倒臺,到1990年代初苏联解体冷战正式结束。中国国共内战、朝鲜战争、中东战争、越南战争、阿富汗战争 (1979年)和两伊战争是几个东西方国家发生区域衝突的例子,但是大多数时候只是双方代理人之间的衝突,在这些衝突中,主要强国只是通过资金和武器援助各自支持的国家或组织。这么做就减少了两大阵营衝突的紧张性。

美国与苏联竞争的一个主要领域就是科学技术,此外还包括了十分隐蔽的间谍战,和双方的政治宣传战。虽然双方的谍报系统经常採取秘密的暗杀行动,但是由於核武器的威慑,两阵营一直没有发生全面衝突。当然在当时,人们并不清楚,一个地区性的小规模衝突是否有可能引发核战争,有鑑於此,每一次的衝突都会引发人们极高的关注。这种紧张态势几乎像真正的战争那样改变了全世界所有人的生活。

德国可以算是冷战中最主要的争端焦点,特别是柏林。柏林围墙很可能是冷战最生动的标誌。这堵墙分隔了东柏林(属於东德)与西柏林(属於西德),使西柏林孤立於东德内。
[编辑] 历史
冷战历史
起源
1947–1953
1953–1962
1962–1979
1979–1985
1985–1991

纳粹德国的崛起促进了西方盟国和苏联在战时的合作,但从一开始世界上第一个社会主义国家苏联和世界头号经济强国美国间的合作就充满了不信任和意识形态分歧。

威斯康辛大学的研究报告称,即使不考虑意识形态分歧,美苏两国在经济方面的竞争也必然会导致二者的对立。沃尔特.拉法尔称美国和俄罗斯帝国早在1900年时就曾因中国东北的发展产生过对立情绪,俄罗斯帝国因在工业方面无法同美国直接竞争而转而寻求自身在远东地区的贸易优势并竭力排除其他大国,而美国则要求门户开放,利益均沾。
雅尔达会议中的三巨头:邱吉尔、罗斯福和史达林

西方世界对冷战的研究经历了3个阶段。在二战结束后10多年的时间内,很少有学者会挑战美国官方对冷战起因的看法:即双方关係的破裂是由於史达林违反了雅尔达共识、苏联企图主宰东欧,以及苏联的扩张主义。

但是,之后很多历史学家提出了另一种观点:美国企图保障其在全球的利益才是冷战最主要的起因。一些历史学家认为,美国的帝国主义野心如果不是最主要,至少也是与苏联的作为同等重要的导致冷战爆发的原因。简单而言,史学家对谁应该为二战期间结盟的美苏关係的破裂负责以及冷战是否是不可避免的这两个问题上产生分歧。后一种观点(即美国应该负责)在越南战争中达到顶峰,很多人开始认为,美国在道德层面上并不比苏联高多少。
1987 年,罗奈尔得·威尔逊·雷根与米哈伊尔.戈巴契夫签署《中导条约》。

在冷战后期,历史学家们开始寻求一种后修正主义的解答。到冷战结束后,这一派观点已经佔了上风。这派历史学家并不认为两个超级大国中的任何一国应该为冷战负全责,而是归咎於双方的误解与反应,两方都应对冷战负责。后修正主义学者追随了现实主义国际关係的看法,认为美国在欧洲的政策,如1947年对希腊的援助和马歇尔计划是必要的。

根据这种观点,「共产主义运动」并不是西欧困境的根源。相反,在经济、政治方面的全面战争,以及欧洲的社会结构才是其根源。而马歇尔计划重建了一个良好的欧洲经济体系,从而减少了极左势力在西欧的吸引力。对欧洲来説,经济援助结束了资金短缺,刺激了对战后重建的投资。对美国来説,该计划解决了生产过剩的问题,增加了美国对外出口。北约组织则将西欧国家纳入共同防御体系,从而避免了共产主义的扩张。后修正主义学派不认为共产主义具有扩张性,企图推翻「自由世界」,但是他们同时认为美国在欧洲的政策在确保欧洲的稳定方面是必要的,从而避免权力向苏联倾斜,最终危及到西方的经济、政治制度。

1989年以来,东欧各国纷纷脱离社会主义制度和计划经济。1990年,柏林围墙拆下。1991年,东西德统一。 1991年,苏联解体。华沙条约解散,冷战时代也随之结束。

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Information

If anything defined the 20th century as the age of anxiety, it's the Cold War with its ultimate no-win nuclear endgame. While conflicts in Korea and Vietnam dragged on, providing the traditional images of modern warfare, some of the conflict's most dangerous battles were invisible--tactical, intellectual, and fought primarily in the minds and war rooms of U.S. and Soviet leaders: Kennedy, Krushchev, Castro, Kissinger, Gorbachev, and Reagan. This 8-volume, 24-episode series, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, is a comprehensive history that examines the key events of the arc of the Soviet Union, from its birth to its fall, and provides a thorough analysis of what was going on behind closed doors. Informed by the stories of 500 eyewitnesses--from citizens and soldiers to historians and statesmen--and strengthened by painstaking reconstruction of archival historical film footage, CNN's Cold War is a heroic undertaking and a sweeping chronicle of the world's most fragile decades.

Note that the highest resolution available for this now out-of-print series is VHS - To the great disappointment of documentarians, Cold War scholars, students and instructors, and history lovers the world over, Time Warner has completely ceased publication of this series, has taken down its equally vast and comprehensive Cold War website and will likely never release this documentary on DVD. Nonetheless this series is unprecedented for its comprehensiveness, its vast array of interviews with many direct participants who are now unfortunately, no longer with us, and its huge collection of archival footage from both sides of the Iron Curtain. It is a story that must be told and shared throughout the world; for over forty years life itself on the planet literally hung in the balance of this high-stakes chessgame between two colossal superpowers.

As each of these 24 episodes is seeded I plan to add on the MVGroup forum release post a more comprehensive synopsis of each episode - describing in greater detail the topics covered, brief biographical information of interview participants and their roles, and highlights of the archival footage included.

Part 1: Comrades
EPISODE ONE: Comrades (1917-1945)
Original Airdate: September 27, 1998

Though ideological enemies, the Soviet Union and the U.S. are allies against Hitler during WWII. At the end of the war, Europe is divided, and the one-time allies now confront each other. The U.S. has the atomic bomb.


Part 2: Iron Curtain
EPISODE TWO: The Iron Curtain (1945-1947)
Original Airdate: October 4, 1998

The Soviet Union dominates Eastern Europe. Churchill warns of the consequences. Stalin insists that the governments of the Soviet Union's client states be pro-communist. Impoverished after the war, Great Britain opts out as a world power. The U.S. assumes the mantle of world leadership.


Part 3: Marshall Plan
EPISODE THREE: The Marshall Plan (1947-1952)
Original Airdate: October 11, 1998

The U.S. adopts the Truman doctrine, pledging to defend freedom worldwide. Secretary of State George Marshall plans to bolster economic recovery in Europe. Seeing this as a threat, Stalin forbids his satellites to participate. The world effectively divides.


Part 4: Berlin
EPISODE FOUR: Berlin (1948-1949)
Original Airdate: October 18, 1998

In Berlin, the American, British and French sectors form a Western enclave in the Soviet zone of divided Germany. In June 1948, the Soviets blockade the city, but the Western allies successfully airlift in supplies. In August 1949, Soviet scientists explode an atomic bomb, establishing nuclear parity between the two superpowers.


Part 5: Korea
EPISODE FIVE: Korea (1949-1953)
Original Airdate: October 25, 1998

In June 1950, North Korea invades the South, with Stalin’s blessing. The United States, backed by the United Nations, defends South Korea, and then is confronted by communist China. In mid-1951, the war grinds to a bloody stalemate but eventually an armistice is signed. Aggression has been contained.


Part 6: Reds
EPISODE SIX: Reds (1947-1953)
Original Airdate: November 1, 1998

Following Stalin’s domination of Eastern Europe and the loss of China, American democracy falls victim to anti-communist hysteria, but survives it. Eisenhower is elected President. In the Soviet Union, Stalin reinforces the climate of terror on which his rule is based. When he dies, in 1953, the Soviet people mourn the end of an era.


Part 7: After Stalin
EPISODE SEVEN: After Stalin (1953-1956)
Original Airdate: November 8, 1998

Thaw is conceivable with Stalin's death. Khrushchev outmaneuvers Malenkov for power and visits the West. Germans, Poles and Hungarians attempt to rise against Soviet rule. In 1956, an uprising in Hungary is ruthlessly crushed by Soviet tanks. The U.S., pledging to contain rather than overthrow communism, does nothing.


Part 8: Sputnik
EPISODE EIGHT: Sputnik (1949-1961)
Original Airdate: November 15, 1998

In the mid-50's the Soviet Union seems to be forging ahead. In October 1957, the first Soviet satellite Sputnik orbits the earth--much to the dismay and fear of the U.S., frustrated by its own ineffectual space program. In 1961, the Soviets launch Yuri Gagarin into space. America will have to meet the challenge.


Part 9: The Wall
EPISODE NINE: The Wall (1959-1963)
Original Airdate: November 22, 1998

The fate of Germany remains unresolved. West Germany has been admitted to NATO. Within East Germany, Berlin is divided between East and West by an open border. Thousands seize the chance to flee the communist system. To keep their people in, the East Germans, with Soviet backing, build the Berlin Wall.


Part 10: Cuba
EPISODE TEN: Cuba (1959-1962)
Original Airdate: November 29, 1998

Khrushchev decides, with Castro's agreement, to install short and medium-range missiles in Cuba, only 90 miles from the U.S. The U.S. detects missile sites and blockades the island. The superpowers confront each other; rather than embark on nuclear war, they each step back. It was close.


Part 11: Vietnam
EPISODE ELEVEN: Vietnam (1954-1968)
Original Airdate: December 6, 1998

Vietnam has been divided since the end of French colonial rule. The North is run by communists, the South by anti-Communists. Ignoring warnings against involvement in a nationalist struggle, the United States commits its armed forces. American protests against the war mount. The U.S. realizes this is not a war it can win.


Part 12: MAD
EPISODE TWELVE: MAD (1960-1972)
Original Airdate: December 13, 1998

Throughout the 60’s, the U.S. and the Soviet Union are locked in a nuclear stand-off; each realizes that bombing the enemy could provoke retaliation and self-destruction. Nuclear strategy evolves into Mutual Assured Destruction, or MAD, in which both sides are guaranteed certain annihilation in the event of nuclear war.


Part 13: Make Love not War the Sixties
EPISODE THIRTEEN: Make Love, Not War - The Sixties
Original Airdate: January 10, 1999

Western economies grow and prosper, fueled partly by armaments production. Rejecting their parents' affluence and the Cold War, many of the young protest and rebel. There is racial violence in U.S. inner cities. Rock music expresses the mood of a disenchanted generation.


Part 14: Red Spring the Sixties
EPISODE FOURTEEN: Red Spring - The Sixties
Original Airdate: January 17, 1999

In the Soviet bloc, communist rule stifles ambition and achievement. Soviet defense expenditure cripples economic growth. The young lust for totems of America's youth culture - blue jeans and rock 'n roll. In Czechoslovakia, Dubcek attempts limited reform, but in 1968, Soviet force crushes the Prague Spring.


Part 15: China
EPISODE FIFTEEN: China (1949-1972)
Original Airdate: January 24, 1999

Chinese communists win the longest civil war in 20th century history. Mao's land reforms are popular but in 1958, he embarks on a series of catastrophic changes. China maintains an increasingly uneasy relationship with the Soviet Union. In 1960, the Sino-Soviet split paves the way for President Nixon's historic visit to Beijing.


Part 16: Detente
EPISODE SIXTEEN: Detente (1969-1975)
Original Airdate: February 7, 1999

North Vietnam launches a new offensive against the South. The U.S. steps up its bombing campaign but seeks peace through diplomacy. Nixon and Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT). The U.S. finally withdraws from Vietnam. Detente culminates in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975.


Part 17: Good Guys Bad Guys
EPISODE SEVENTEEN: Good Guys, Bad Guys (1967-1978)
Original Airdate: February 14, 1999

The superpowers use surrogates to wage ideological and often physical conflict. In 1967 and 1973, American-backed Israel triumphs over Soviet-backed Egypt and Syria. In Africa, the Soviets exploit nationalist, anti-colonial struggles. The U.S. supports South Africa in its battle against communism.


Part 18: Backyard
EPISODE EIGHTEEN: Backyard (1954-1990)
Original Airdate: February 21, 1999

The United States has always regarded Latin America as its own backyard. Fearing the spread of communism, it seeks to destabilize leftist governments. In 1973, the CIA helps overthrow Chilean president Salvador Allende; in the 1980's it supports right wing extremists in Nicaragua and El Salvador.


Part 19: Freeze
EPISODE NINETEEN: Freeze (1977-1981)
Original Airdate: February 28, 1999

Concern for human rights in the East grows; detente ebbs. The Soviets arm Eastern Europe; the U.S. threatens to site missiles in Western Europe. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ends detente. Promising tougher measures against Moscow, Reagan defeats Carter for the presidency. In Poland, martial law is imposed.


Part 20: Soldiers of God
EPISODE TWENTY: Soldiers of God (1975-1988)
Original Airdate: March 7, 1999

Afghanistan is a war that costs the lives of almost 15,000 Soviet conscripts and an estimated one million Afghans. The United States supplies billions of dollars of weapons to unlikely allies--Islamic fundamentalists. The result is a Vietnam-style conflict which takes its toll on the Soviets and hastens the end of the Cold War.


Part 21: Spies
EPISODE TWENTY-ONE: Spies (1944-1994)
Original Airdate: March 14, 1999

Early CIA attempts to penetrate the Iron Curtain are thwarted. The U.S. reacts with increasingly sophisticated technological intelligence--the U-2 spy plane, satellite reconnaissance and electronic eavesdropping. Yet human spies remain important. Sometimes betrayers, sometimes betrayed, many spies pay with their lives.


Part 22: Star Wars
EPISODE TWENTY-TWO: Star Wars (1981-1988)
Original Airdate: March 21, 1999

Reagan boosts U.S. defense spending and proposes the Strategic Defense Initiative, an anti-missile system in space. New premier Gorbachev knows the Soviets can't match the U.S., and wants to liberalize and reconstruct the economy. After summits in Geneva, Reykjavik and Washington, the leaders agree to drastic arms cuts.


Part 23: The Wall Comes Down
EPISODE TWENTY-THREE: The Wall Comes Down (1989)
Original Airdate: March 28, 1999

The dominoes fall incredibly quickly: the Soviet bloc is breaking up, virtually without bloodshed. First Poland, then Hungary, then East Germany slip away from communist control. Gorbachev makes no effort to hold them back with force. Amid scenes of jubilation, the hated Berlin Wall comes down.


Part 24: Conclusions
EPISODE TWENTY-FOUR: Conclusions (1989-1991)
Original Airdate: April 4, 1999

The U.S. proves the stronger; the Soviet Union implodes. Germany is reunified. Shorn of its empire and communist domination, Russia faces its future with its economy in chaos. The balance of terror that has kept the peace for more than 40 years vanishes. The Cold War has ended without the use of nuclear weapons.






Technical Specs
(First Episode only; representative of all files in the series)

File Name ........... : CNN.Cold.War.01of24.Comrades.XviD.MP3.MVGroup.Forum.avi
Total Size (MB) ... : 552.39 MB
Duration .............. : 00:46:27

Video Codec ....... : XviD MPEG-4 codec
Resolution .......... : 640 x 464
Aspect Ratio ....... : 1.37:1
Video Bitrate ...... : 1529 KB/s
Framerate .......... : 29.97 FPS
Quality Factor ..... : 0.171 B/px

Audio Codec ....... : MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3)
Audio Bitrate ...... : 132 KB/s (VBR)
Channels ............ : 2 Ch
Sampling Rate .... : 48000 Hz

Ripped by ......... : mark3478879 for MVG


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