Herbert von Karajan 卡拉扬 -《柴可夫斯基：第一钢琴协奏曲、小提琴协奏曲》(Tchaikovsky - Piano Concerto No.1, Violin Concerto)DG [Christian Ferras, Lazar Berman][FLAC]
指挥：Herbert von Karajan
协奏：Berliner Philharmonic Orchestra
这套《柴可夫斯基：第一钢琴协奏曲、小提琴协奏曲》由 DG 唱片公司发行于1989 年，分别由钢琴家拉扎尔·贝尔曼和小提琴家克里斯蒂安·费拉斯主奏，赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬指挥柏林爱乐乐团演奏录制。
拉扎尔·贝尔曼（Lazar Bermen , 1930) 是20 世纪俄罗斯著名的钢琴家之一，以触键轻巧、音色厚实、有光泽，和弦处理鲜明，弹奏速度自然，表情细致而著称于世．他对作品的诊释，常常是在整体把握音乐的创作构思下，充分表达自己丰富的想象力，既有缠绵、柔美之情，也有铿锵、恢宏之势．贝尔曼擅长演奏李斯特的作品，他于1963 年演录的李斯特的《 超级练习曲》 的唱片，深得卡拉扬的赏识．其次，他更擅长演奏俄罗斯作曲家的作品，尤其是柴可夫斯基的作品，那种在独自黯淡色调中隐藏着温暖情感的演绎无人能及，经他演奏和录制的柴可夫斯基的《 第一钢琴协奏曲》 ，被公认为是权威性的版本，深受乐迷的喜爱和欢迎。
法国小提琴家克里斯蒂安·费拉斯（Christian Ferras），先后在尼斯音乐学院和巴黎音乐学院从比斯德西（Bistesi）和卡威（Calvet）学习，曾获小提琴演奏和室内乐演奏奖．后又从埃乃斯库学习，17 岁参加蒂博国际小提琴比赛获第一名，尔后开始巡回演奏口其音色壮丽多采，卡拉扬与其合作的协奏曲，尤其好评如潮. 1960年开始费拉斯成为卡拉扬最喜爱的小提琴家并成为柏林爱乐人气指数最高的音乐家。
赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬（Herbert von Karajan ）为伟大的奥地利指挥家．自幼学钢琴，曾进维也纳音乐学校和萨尔兹堡的莫扎特音乐学院学习．他的指挥生涯先从小城乌尔姆开始，1938 年被聘为柏林歌剧院的指挥，1947 年任维也纳爱乐乐团和维也纳乐友协会管弦乐队指挥，1949 年起兼任米兰• 斯卡拉歌剧院常任指挥，1950 年兼任伦敦爱乐乐团常任指挥，1955 年起任柏林爱乐乐团的终身常任指挥，1956 年任维也纳国立歌剧院的音乐总指导．他是现代最著名的指挥家之一，人们称他为“欧洲音乐的总指导”。他也是拜罗伊特、萨尔兹堡音乐节的主要人物．1967 年开始主办他个人的音乐节― 复活节音乐周。
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No. 1 in B flat minor op. 23, composed in Moscow during November and December 1874 and orchestrated during the next two months, is possibly the best— known and best-loved of all piano concertos. It is full of original ideas presented in a masterly fashion. It owes its popularity, however, less to these qualities than to the scope which it offers for dazzling pianistic virtuosity — and to the grandiose maesloso introduction to its first movement, whose brash power and melodic simplicity can enthrall the listener — or repel him. This’ Tchaikovsky is really a matter of taste! However, the musical material of this celebrated (or notorious) introduction plays no further part, either during the first movement or in the rest of the work.
Tchaikovsky took the first theme of the first movement, evolved from an apparently hesitant two bar motif, circling upon itself, from Ukrainian folk music. (He often used folksong melodies, particularly in his early works, just as such tunes were used by the St. Petersburg composers known as the “mighty handful” — Balakirev, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin and Cui.) In a letter written to his patroness Nadezhda von Meck in May l879 Tchaikovsky recalled: “I heard blind people singing a lyre song. It is called a lyre song after the name of the accompanying instrument, the lyre, although this has nothing in common with the lyre of ancient times. It is curious that all the blind singers in Little Russia [the Ukraine] sing one and the same endless melody, and with the same accompaniment. I have used part of this melody in the first movement of my Piano Concerto.” Tchaikovsky also introduced a second Ukrainian folk song, ‘Come out, Ivanku”, into this work, as the second theme of the Finale (in whose three sections the two principal themes alternate as in a rondo rather than being developed in the manner of sonata form — the movement is an unusual formal hybrid, with a concluding stretta).
There is also a third quotation to be found in Tchaikovsky’s B flat minor Concerto, in the second movement (D flat major, three sections, in the formal pattern A B A’). During the second of these, Prestissimo — the movement combines the characteristics of a lyrical slow movement (A sections) and a playful, scherzo--like movement (B section) the strings sing an impudent, disreputable—sounding tune, molto cantabile e grazioso against springy figuration of the piano, which here acts merely as accompanist. In his three—volume biography “The Life of P.I. Tchaikovsky” tile composer’s brother Modest refers In this melody: “It is the little chanson ‘Il faut s’amuser, dansei et rire….’ which my brother Anatol and I [. . ] constantly sang during the early ‘70s”.
According to Modest Tchaikovsky, his brother originally intended to dedicate the First Piano Concerto to his friend the pianist and conductor Nikolai Rubinstein (who was also director of the Moscow Conservatory, at which Tchaikovsky was professor of harmony and composition for thirteen years from 1866) Rubinstein generally helped and encouraged the young composer, but he criticized this concerto so harshly that Tchaikovsky, deeply offended and disappointed, turned to the great German conductor and pianist Hans von Bulow. On receiving the music he responded with enthusiasm, writing to the composer at the beginning of June l875: “Perhaps it is presumptuous of me, as I am not familiar with all the works of your many— sided and noble talent, to express my opinion that your opus 23 appears to me the most brilliant and accomplished work by which you have so far enriched the musical world. It is so original in its ideas, without ever being artificial, so noble, so powerful, so interesting in its details, the great number of which never disturb the clarity and unity of the work as a whole; it is so mature in form, so ‘stylish’ - the conception and its realization correspond so harmoniously, that I would weary you if I listed all the virtues which lead me to congratulate both the composer and all those who will have the opportunity to enjoy this work, either performing or hearing it. In a word: it is a real pearl, and you deserve the gratitude of all pianists.”
Bulow took the performing material with him on a concert tour in the USA, and played the work with great success on 13/25 October 1875 at the Music Hall in Boston (the conductor was Benjamin Johnson Lang).
Thomas KohIhase (Translation: John Coombs)
Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto
The expression “stinking music, which Eduard Hanslick used in 1881 after hearing Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concerto, has often been angrily rebutted by later writers. Tchaikovsky himself felt deeply offended when he heard about Hanslick’s criticism. In fact, however, Hanslick had a high opinion of other works by Tchaikovsky; he had a particular affection” for Eugene Onegin, and was later greatly drawn to the Sixth Symphony. His attitude to the Violin Concerto was misunderstood. As a devotee of absolute music Hanslick not only took a sceptical view of all composers of “music of the future”, among whom he included Tchaikovsky, but saw the turn away from Classical principles as symptomatic of music in decline. There was also the fact that the Violin Concerto by Brahms, which had been written at about the same time as Tchaikovsky’s concerto, and which Hanslick valued particularly highly, was diametrically opposed in its expressive content to Tchaikovsky’s work. By comparison with the cool reserve and rarefied tonal language of Brahms, the unbridled expressive power of Tchaikovsky’s music was bound to offend Hanslick’s susceptibilities. That was what his words signified. Here were two utterly different concepts of the nature of a concerto. Hanslicks adverse reaction is fully understandable only when we remember that Tchaikovsky rejected the music of Brahms as pretentious and “without genuine depth”, and described Brahms to Nadezhda von Meck as a “composer without any creative power”.
The uncommon technical difficulties of the solo part of Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concerto made it questionable whether it would ever be performed. While still working on it at Clarens by Lake Geneva, the composer rewrote the first movement in response to objections raised by the violinist Joseph Kotek; he also removed the Andante, which was later published separately, replacing it by a new movement. Nevertheless Kotek, and also Emile Sauret, eventually declined to play the work. The same thing happened with Leopold Aucr, who found the technical demands of the concerto too much for him, and warned his fellow violinists against this “monstrosity”. Finally in 1881 the violinist Adolf Brodskv introduced the work to the public in Vienna.
In this concerto Tchaikovsky did not indulge in formal experiments, but handled Classical concerto form with a considerable degree of freedom. Thus the opening motive of the principal theme of the first movement is first developed in the tutti introduction before it is taken up in its entirety by the solo instrument. The cadenza, generally found at the end of the first movement, has been removed to the axis of the movement, thus placing the element of technical virtuosity literally in the centre. At the seamless transition from the second to the last movement, Tchaikovsky demonstrates his improvisatory skill in fashioning linking passages. The opening motive of the Finale theme is introduced and developed by the orchestra, in the manner of Beethoven’s working-out of thematic fragments, so that the ground is prepared for the highly effective entrance of the theme in the last movement.
Heinz Becker (Translation: John Coombs)
Herbert von Karajan - Conductor
Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No.1 in B flat, op.21
Lazar Berman - Piano
01. Allegro non troppo e molto maestroso - Allegro con spirito
02. Andantino semplice - Prestissimo - Tempo I
03. Allegro con fuoco
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major, op.15
Christian Ferras - Violin
04. Allegro moderato
05. Canzonetta. Andante - attacca
06. Finale. Allegro vivacissimo