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William Christie & Les Arts Florissants -《韓德爾:狄奧多拉》(Handel: Theodora)[清唱劇][更新 視頻(指揮是同一個人)][共3CD][APE]

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    发行时间2000年
  • 时间: 2010/03/28 08:14:41 发布 | 2010/04/11 07:17:59 更新
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专辑英文名Handel: Theodora
专辑中文名韓德爾:狄奧多拉
资源格式APE
版本[清唱劇][更新 視頻(指揮是同一個人)][共3CD]
发行时间2000年
地区英国
语言英语
简介

IPB Image

唱片公司: Warner
資源出處: 原版CD抓轨
指揮: William Christie
錄音制式: DDD

專輯介紹:

以下簡介轉自http://blog.roodo.com/davidlee0123/archives/71363.html

Theodora的背景与一些周边故事

Handel晚年的清唱剧创作与晚期歌剧如出一辙,都开始走强烈抒情的路綫,在正式从事清唱剧(1730年代写的Deborah和Athalia)直到他最后几部清唱剧Susanna、Solomon、Theodora也有近20年的光阴,早期中期那种宏大的悲剧史诗已经逐步让位给抒情性的悲剧,四部战时清唱剧(Judas Maccabaeus、The Occasional Oratrio、Joshua、Alexander Balus)被认为是高峰,并取得了极大的成功,但形成鲜明反差的是﹕Theodora这部1749年的作品所遭受的命运却是凄惨的,1750年3月的首演只持续了三场,1755年重演也只有一场,1759年的重演因为Handel的逝世而被取消。面对空空如也的剧院,Handel也说了自嘲的话﹕"对於犹太人来说,这是基督教的故事,对於妇女来说,这又是道德故事"。

正如作曲家本人所说的那样,Theodora的题材选择在Handel的清唱剧中的确是非同寻常的,以往大多选自圣经或圣经外传,但这个故事却是基督教形成后的事,是罗马皇帝戴克裏先在位的后期受加勒利挑动之下大肆迫害基督徒的事,此事当发生於4世纪初期,但早期教会对这些迫害往往夸大其词,添油加醋,弄得几位异教罗马皇帝都如禽兽一般(如朱裏安),而信教的皇帝即使是暴君也被修饰为圣君(如君士坦丁一世),这也使当时的那些传说常常不著边际(可以参看伏尔泰的风俗论)。Theodora这个故事自然是杜撰无疑,Theodora与Irene的名字都是罗马帝国东部女性常用名字,不过在看唱片说明书时发现了一个有趣的故事,即此故事的来源居然是出自著名化学家Robert Boyle的一本著作,法国著名悲剧作家Corneille也有此类故事,Handel的剧本作家Thomas Morell从两者中抽取改编,虽然剧本本身就有那种很强烈的宗教狂热感,还将Theodora身份提升到了安条克的公主,当然Didymus身为军人也是基督徒的身份设定是很符合当时罗马的情况的(可以参见Derek Jarman的惊世之作Sebastiane)。

关於音乐与剧情的略述

序曲如同Handel的多数作品一样,是法国式的,开始强烈而带有悲剧色彩,中段转入快速的赋格段,Trio则有强烈的抒情性与美感,但转瞬即到了狂热的 Courante舞曲,一直延续到罗马军官Valens与罗马人在準备戴克裏先大帝生日献人祭给朱比特的场合。Valens第一首Aria"Go, my faithful soldier, go"採用了大量嘹亮的铜管,后面异教徒的合唱则是这首Aria的变形,著重体现了粗野但悦耳的旋律。Valens手下有两位军官Didymus与 Septimius,Didymus对用基督徒献祭的方法很反感,但提出的抗议被粗暴的Valens拒绝,第二场裏Handel就用了两首极重的 Aria,Didymus那首还是全剧中最长的,仍然延续著Aria da capo的形式,但极富戏剧性,从开始那种抒情到中段的狂热,对暴君的愤怒,在弦乐器的衬托下表现得淋漓尽致,而Septimius那首"desend kind pity"则是美妙的颂歌,Septimius虽然不像Didymus是基督徒,但他毕竟有同情心,所以对其所领受的抓捕基督徒的任务感到疑惑,这首绝美的Aria则体现了他富有同情心的那面。

女主角的出场则给整部戏蒙上了阴影,Theodora的六首Aria中只有一首是大调的,可见其被设定为一个命运悲惨的女子,"fond flatt'ring world"就是悲剧意味很浓的,而她的朋友与支持者Irene却是整剧中最重要的角色之一,虽然从剧情上来说不甚重要,但最强的几段音乐都是写给她这个半叙述者角色的,在信使来通报罗马人要来抓基督徒时,她那首表明信仰坚定不移的Aria"As with rosy steps the morn"可算是Handel写的最光辉最动人的Aria,低音乐器缓缓流动,次女高音在其衬托下抒情得诉说著光明穿透黑暗以及对上帝坚定的信仰,纵然仍透著挥之不去的悲凉之意。

第五场是戏剧发生的第一个高潮点,Septimius带领士兵抓到了Theodora,他那首"Dread the friuts of christian folly"运用大量颤音,表现了其粗暴的一面。而在他劝说Theodora放弃信仰时,Theodora毅然唱到"worse than death indeed!"之后是其唯一一首大调的Aria"Angels ever bright and fair"也是全剧中最有名的一首,对这首天上之乐苍白的语言似乎已经起不到任何的评说作用。她拒绝放弃信仰,并自愿被他带走,而赶来的Didymus已经晚了一步,从Irene那裏得到了Theodora被带走的消息。他那首"kind Heaven"又是戏剧性与抒情性结合的完美典范,第一句唱词是强烈的抒情,而紧接下来就是快速的戏剧性乐段,Handel晚年常用这种突然的对比以营造戏剧效果。

第二部开场是罗马人的庆典,弥漫著热闹的气氛,合唱队所唱的"queen of summer"无疑是Purcell风格的,Handel给异教徒的合唱分配了世俗而美妙的乐段,而基督徒的合唱中则有了一丝德国宗教音乐的严肃与厚实的复调,在这裏对比也是很强烈的。Valens的喧叙调交代了Theodora已被关押的消息,为下一场剧情的发展留了綫索。

接下来的囚牢场景是极为阴暗的,Theodora的两段Aria前都有哀歌似的的Symphony伴奏,第一首悲哀的"With darkness deep as is my woe"第二首则是稍显乐观的"Oh that I on wings could rise"整个第二场就是这位弱女子的内心独白,在孤立无援的悲惨境地下却激发她最大的勇气去克服对死亡的恐惧而为上帝献身。第三场则是Didymus向 Septimius道出自己基督徒身份与他对Theodora爱慕之情,并要去救她,Handel在此用了繁复的形式,Didymus的极美的 Aria"Deeds of kindness to display"后插入Irene的Aria,接著又是牢房场景,Didymus与Theodora连续的几段Aria直到最后的二重唱,实质上解决两者间的分歧,Theodora是拒绝被救的,而Didymus经过劝说终於让她逃离。在这裏Didymus的Aria"Sweet rose"的欣喜之情很快就被Theodora那首无奈而认命的Aria击碎。而最后的二重唱也是犹豫而不明确的,在整齣戏裏,真正的光明似乎一直没出现过,而一直被一种悲凉之气笼罩,也没有所谓的英雄人物出现,这些普通人只能被捲入命运的旋涡中无力反抗。

第三场在Irene欣慰的祈祷中开始,因为Theodora已经获救,但信使又带来了坏消息,Didymus被抓,Theodora决定去和他一起受死,遭到了Irene的反对,在一首戏剧的双重唱后, Theodora毅然回去。Irene哀伤地唱"New scenes of joy come crowding on",这是一首强作欢顔的Aria,虽然对未来仍然充满希望,但真正的悲意不免从中而来。而在另一边,残暴的Valens嘲笑所谓基督教的道德,Didymus争论毫无用处,而Theodora出现并要求放了Didymus让她代他而死,这时Septimius的Aria"from virtue springs"则是他心路变化的最明显例子,从一个怀疑基督者到不断地同情一直到赞许基督徒的做法,但这首美妙的Aria被Valens残暴的怒斥打断,他对此不屑一顾,并要把这对爱人一起处死。这时Handel用了一系列最惊人的手法,第一步就是让异教徒们的合唱焕发出真正的基督教的严肃感"how strange their ends",这绝对是一首惊心动魄的合唱,缓慢得犹如送葬进行曲,前面多是唱快乐曲调的异教徒也因这对爱人的崇高举动而发生了如此大的改变,这与 Septimius的转变也是同出一辙的。

在一段告别的宣叙调后,Handel在全剧裏最惊人的一段音乐到来,Didymus用一首Aria来表达他们的死亡仍然是一种胜利,中段时 Theodora突然加入,变为了二重唱,而且从先前的大调急转为小调,歌词现抄如下:
Streams of pleasure ever flowing,
Fruits ambrosial ever growing,
Golden thrones,
Starry crowns,
Are the triumphs of the blest.
When from life's dull labour free,
Clad with immortality,
They enjoy a lasting rest.

Theodora and Didymus
Thither let our hearts aspire:
Objects pure of pure desire,
Still increasing,
Ever pleasing,
Wake the song, and tune the lyre
Of the blissful holy choir.

前面一段描绘自然界美景生生不息来表明自己的牺牲不是白费,在此处是用优美而抒情的旋律,弦乐的歌唱性随处可见,而第二段本应更加高潮更加绝美并更有信心的部分居然用了极悲哀的曲调,一下子急转直下,越来越微弱,直到渐渐消逝。这样罕见的处理似乎是巴罗克音乐戏剧中从未有过的一笔,也是这部巴罗克音乐戏剧冠冕上最耀眼的明珠。最后全剧在Irene与基督徒歌颂爱战胜死亡的合唱中结束,自然也是弥漫著哀悼之情的。



专辑曲目

DISC 1

CD: William Christie - Les Arts Florissants - Handel: Theodora (CD1)

01. Ouverture [0:03:04.77]
02. Trio [0:01:33.08]
03. Courante [0:01:39.86]
04. Part1: Scene1 - 1. Recit: 'Tis Diocletian's natal day (Valens) [0:00:32.34]
05. Part1: Scene1 - 2. Air: Go, my faithful soldier, go (Valens) [0:01:46.49]
06. Part1: Scene1 - 3. Chorus: And draw a blessing down (Heathens) [0:02:05.24]
07. Part1: Scene1 - 4. Recit: Vouchsafe, dread Sir, a gracious ear (Didymus, Valens) [0:00:55.41]
08. Part1: Scene1 - 5. Air: Racks, gibbets, sword and fire (Valens) [0:03:35.96]
09. Part1: Scene1 - 6. Chorus: For ever thus stands fixed the doom (Heathens) [0:01:33.52]
10. Part1: Scene2 - 1. Recit: Most cruel edict! (Didymus) [0:00:30.89]
11. Part1: Scene2 - 2. Air: The rapture'd soul defies thr sword (Didymus) [0:08:27.97]
12. Part1: Scene2 - 3. Recit: I know thy vitues (Septimus) [0:00:41.24]
13. Part1: Scene2 - 4. Air: Descend, kind pity, heav'nly guest (Septimus) [0:06:17.21]
14. Part1: Scene3 - 1. Recit: Tho' hard, my friends (Theodora) [0:00:27.56]
15. Part1: Scene3 - 2. Air: Fond, flatt'ring world, adieu! (Theodora) [0:04:40.70]
16. Part1: Scene3 - 3. Recit: O bright example of all goodness! (Irene) [0:00:29.00]
17. Part1: Scene3 - 4. Air: Bane of virtue (Irene) [0:05:25.90]
18. Part1: Scene3 - 5. ChorusCome, mighty Father (Christians) [0:03:41.28]
19. Part1: Scene4 - 1. Recit: Fly, fly, my brethren (Messenger, Irene) [0:00:59.65]
20. Part1: Scene4 - 2. Air: As with rosy steps the morn (Irene) [0:05:57.16]
21. Part1: Scene4 - 3. Chorus: All pow'r in Heav'n above (Christians) [0:02:18.33]
22. Part1: Scene5 - 1. Recit: Mistaken wretches! (Septimus) [0:00:19.81]
23. Part1: Scene5 - 2. Air: Dread the fruits of Christian folly (Septimus) [0:02:39.85]
24. Part1: Scene5 - 3. Recit: Deluded mortal! (Theodora, Septimus) [0:01:01.58]
25. Part1: Scene5 - 4. Accomp: O worse than death indeed (Theodora) [0:00:26.92]
26. Part1: Scene5 - 5. Air: Angels, ever bright and fair (Theodora) [0:03:20.26]
27. Part1: Scene6 - 1. Recit: Unhappy, happy crew! (Didymus, Irene) [0:01:09.13]
28. Part1: Scene6 - 2. Air: Kind Heav'n, if virtue by thy care (Didymus) [0:05:27.90]
29. Part1: Scene6 - 3. Recit: O love, how great thy pow'r (Irene) [0:00:23.70]
30. Part1: Scene6 - 4. Chorus: Go, gen'rous, pious youth (Christians) [0:05:52.56]

DISC 2

01. Part2: Scene1 - 1. Recit: Ye men of Antioch (Valens) [0:00:36.17]
02. Part2: Scene1 - 2. Chorus: Queen of summer, queen of love (Heathens) [0:00:50.22]
03. Part2: Scene1 - 3. Air: Wide spread his name (Valens) [0:02:14.28]
04. Part2: Scene1 - 4. Recit: Return, Septimius (Valens) [0:00:37.69]
05. Part2: Scene1 - 5. Chorus: Venus, laughing from the skies (Heathens) [0:01:18.68]
06. Part2: Scene2 - 1. Symphony [0:01:06.26]
07. Part2: Scene2 - 2. Recit: O thou bright sun! (Theodora) [0:00:33.29]
08. Part2: Scene2 - 3. Air: With darkness deep as is my woe (Theodora) [0:03:56.73]
09. Part2: Scene2 - 4. Symphony [0:01:48.93]
10. Part2: Scene2 - 5. Recit: But why art thou disquieted, my soul? (Theodora) [0:00:29.48]
11. Part2: Scene2 - 6. Air: Oh, that I on wings could rise (Theodora) [0:03:40.84]
12. Part2: Scene3 - 1. Long have I known (Didymus, Septimius) [0:01:07.66]
13. Part2: Scene3 - 2. Air: Tho' the honours that Flora and Venus receive (Septimius) [0:03:02.37]
14. Part2: Scene3 - 3. Recit: O save her then (Didymus, Septimius) [0:00:36.02]
15. Part2: Scene3 - 4. Air: Deeds of kindness to display (Didymus) [0:06:34.13]
16. Part2: Scene4 - 1. Recit: The clouds begin to veil the hemisphere (Irene) [0:00:38.73]
17. Part2: Scene4 - 2. Air: Defend her, Heav'n (Irene) [0:04:35.74]
18. Part2: Scene5 - 1. Recit: Or lulled with grief (Didymus) [0:00:34.52]
19. Part2: Scene5 - 2. Air: Sweet rose and lily, flow'ry form (Didymus) [0:02:43.65]
20. Part2: Scene5 - 3. Recit: O save me, Heav'n (Theodora, Didymus) [0:01:26.74]
21. Part2: Scene5 - 4. Air: The pilgrim's home, the sick man's health (Theodora) [0:03:19.13]
22. Part2: Scene5 - 5. Accomp: Forbid it, Heav'n! (Didymus) [0:00:31.98]
23. Part2: Scene5 - 6. Recit: Or say, what right have I (Didymus, Theodora) [0:01:33.48]
24. Part2: Scene5 - 7. Duet: To thee, thou glorious son of worth (Theodora, Didymus) [0:04:34.85]
25. Part2: Scene6 - 1. Recit: 'Tis night, but night's sweet blessing (Irene) [0:00:44.61]
26. Part2: Scene6 - 2. Chorus: He saw the lovely youth (Christians) [0:05:15.84]

DISC 3

01. Part3: Scene1 - 1. Air: Lord, to thee, each night and day (Irene) [0:04:20.21]
02. Part3: Scene2 - 1. Recit: But see the good, the virtuous Didymus! (Irene, Theodora) [0:00:36.46]
03. Part3: Scene2 - 2. Air: When sunk in anguish and despair (Theodora) [0:04:29.77]
04. Part3: Scene2 - 3. Chorus: Blest be the hand (Christians, Theodora) [0:03:26.82]
05. Part3: Scene3 - 1. Undaunted in the court (Messenger, Irene) [0:00:45.76]
06. Part3: Scene3 - 2. Accomp: O my Irene, Heav'n is kind (Theodora) [0:00:34.08]
07. Part3: Scene3 - 3. Duet: Whither, Princess, do you fly (Irene, Theodora) [0:01:17.89]
08. Part3: Scene3 - 4.Recit: She's gone, disdaining liberty and life (Irene) [0:00:30.97]
09. Part3: Scene3 - 5. Air: New scenes of joy come crowding on (Irene) [0:03:29.69]
10. Part3: Scene4 - 1. Recit: Is it a Christian virtue, then (Valens, Didymus); Scene5 - 1. Recit: Be that my doom (Theodora, Sept [0:01:53.30]
11. Part3: Scene5 - 2. Air: From Virtue springs each gen'rous deed (Septimius) [0:07:05.08]
12. Part3: Scene5 - 3. Air: Cease, ye slaves, your fruitless pray'r (Valens) [0:01:04.77]
13. Part3: Scene5 - 4. Recit: 'Tis kind, my friends (Didymus, Theodora) [0:00:55.74]
14. Part3: Scene5 - 5. Chorus: How strange their ends (Heathens) [0:04:24.62]
15. Part3: Scene5 - 6. Recit: On me your frowns (Didymus, Theodora, Valens) [0:00:42.72]
16. Part3: Scene6 - 1. Recit: And must such beauty suffer! (Didymus, Theodora, Septimius) [0:00:39.28]
17. Part3: Scene6 - 1. Air: Streams of pleasure ever flowing (Didymus) - 2. Duet: Thither let our hearts aspire (Theodora, Didymus) [0:05:20.17]
18. Part3: Scene6 - 3. Recit: Ere this their doom is past (Irene) [0:00:25.28]
19. Part3: Scene6 - 4. Chorus: O love divine, thou source of fame (Irene, Christians) [0:04:09.29]

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