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《价格理论及应用:决策,市场,及信息》(Price Theory and Applications: Decisions, Markets, and Information)(赫舒拉发 Hirshleifer)第7版[PDF]

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  • 摘要:
    出版社剑桥大学出版社
    发行时间2005年09月12日
    语言英文
  • 时间: 2010/02/14 14:12:11 发布 | 2010/02/14 21:48:08 更新
  • 分类: 图书  经济管理 

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中文名价格理论及应用:决策,市场,及信息
原名Price Theory and Applications: Decisions, Markets, and Information
资源格式PDF
版本第7版
出版社剑桥大学出版社
书号9780521523424
发行时间2005年09月12日
地区美国
语言英文
简介

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内容介绍:

这是本书的第七版。作为一本经典的微观经济学教科书,本书用生动有趣的风格引领读者进入经济学的世界。特别之处在於将经济学思维方式展现给读者,另外在於将日常生活和最新经济学研究的例子用书中的理论来阐发。作为中级程度的微观经济学课本,它可以作为喜欢思考但没有任何经济学基础的读者的优秀入门读物,也可以用作阅读 STIGLER 和 MILTON FRIDMAN 价格理论作品的桥樑。

作者介绍:

赫舒拉发(Hirshleifer)是价格理论专家,解读费雪(IRVINE FISHER)的权威学者, UCLA 经济学荣誉教授,曾经在芝加哥大学任教,也是张五常其中一位最敬重的老师。赫舒拉发在经济不确定性和信息,矛盾的经济分析方面享誉国际。赫舒拉发教授於2005年七月逝世。

资源来自网络,感谢原作者发佈。只供个人研究,请尊重版权。所有问题概与本帖无关。

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目录

part one. introduction
1 The Nature and Scope of Economics 3
1.1 Economics as a Social Science 4
1.2 “Economic Man” 9
Rationality 9
Human Goals – The Self-Interest Assumption 12
Ignorance and Uncertainty 16
1.3 Market and Nonmarket Interactions 16
1.4 Allocation by Prices – The Market System 18
1.5 Behavior within Organizations 20
1.6 Positive and Normative Analysis: “Is” versus “Ought” 20
1.7 Elements of the Economic System 21
Decision-Making Agents in the Economy 21
Scarcity, Objects of Choice, and Economic Activities 22
1.8 Microeconomics and Macroeconomics 23
summary 23
questions 24
2 Working Tools 27
2.1 Equilibrium: Supply-Demand Analysis 28
Balancing Supply and Demand 28
How Changes in Supply and Demand Affect Equilibrium 30
Algebra of Supply-Demand Analysis 36
An Application: Introducing a New Supply Source 38
Taxes on Transactions 39
An Application: Interdicting Supply 43
Price Ceilings and Price Floors 46
2.2 Finding an Optimum 49
The Logic of Total, Average, and Marginal Concepts 50
How Total, Average, and Marginal Magnitudes Are Related 54
An Application: Foraging –When Is It Time to Pack Up and Leave? 59
summary 61
questions 62
part two. preference, consumption, and demand
3 Utility and Preference 69
3.1 The Laws of Preference 70
3.2 Utility and Preference 72
Cardinal versus Ordinal Utility 73
Utility of Commodity Baskets 77
3.3 Characteristics of Indifference Curves 79
3.4 More on Goods and Bads 83
An Application: Charity 85
3.5 The Sources and Content of Preferences 86
summary 90
questions 90
4 Consumption and Demand 93
4.1 The Optimum of the Consumer 94
The Geometry of Consumer Choice 94
Optimum of the Consumer (Cardinal Utility) 97
Optimum of the Consumer (Ordinal Utility) 100
4.2 Complements and Substitutes 104
4.3 The Consumer’s Response to Changing Opportunities 107
The Income Expansion Path 107
The Engel Curve 110
Price Expansion Path and Demand Curve 112
4.4 Income and Substitution Effects of a Price Change 115
An Application: How Can the Giffen Case Come About? How Likely
Is It? 117
4.5 From Individual Demand to Market Demand 118
4.6 An Application: Subsidy versus Voucher 120
summary 122
questions 124
5 Applications and Extensions of Demand Theory 127
5.1 The Engel Curve and the Income Elasticity of Demand 128
5.2 The Demand Curve and the Price Elasticity of Demand 132
5.3 The Cross-Elasticity of Demand 136
5.4 Fitting a Demand Curve 137
Constant Slope versus Constant Elasticity 138
General Demand Functions 139
5.5 Determinants of Responsiveness of Demand to Price 142
5.6 Multiple Constraints – Rationing 144
Coupon Rationing 144
Point Rationing 146
summary 151
questions 152
part three. the firm and the industry
6 The Business Firm 157
6.1 Why Firms? Entrepreneur, Owner, Manager 158
Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit 160
The Separation of Ownership and Control 160
6.2 The Optimum of the Firm in Pure Competition 165
The Shutdown Decision 172
An Application: Division of Output among Plants 174
6.3 Cost Functions 176
Short Run versus Long Run 176
Rising Costs and Diminishing Returns 180
6.4 An Application: Peak versus Off-Peak Operation 182
summary 186
questions 187
7 Equilibrium in the Product Market – Competitive Industry 191
7.1 The Supply Function 192
From Firm Supply to Market Supply: The Short Run 192
Long-Run and Short-Run Supply 195
External Economies and Diseconomies 199
7.2 Firm Survival and the Zero-Profit Theorem 201
7.3 The Benefits of Exchange: Consumer Surplus and
Producer Surplus 203
An Application: TheWater-Diamond Paradox 205
An Application: Benefits of an Innovation 206
7.4 Transaction Taxes and Other Hindrances to Trade 207
Transaction Taxes 208
Supply Quotas 209
An Application: Import Quotas 210
Price Ceilings and “Shortages” 213
summary 217
questions 218
8 Monopolies, Cartels, and Networks 221
8.1 The Monopolist’s Profit-Maximizing Optimum 222
Price-Quantity Solution 222
Monopoly versus Competitive Solutions 226
An Application: Author versus Publisher 228
An Application: Monopolist with Competitive
Fringe 231
8.2 Monopoly and Economic Efficiency 231
8.3 Regulation of Monopoly 234
8.4 Monopolistic Price Discrimination 238
Market Segmentation 238
Block Pricing 241
Perfect Discrimination 243
8.5 Cartels 244
8.6 Network Externalities 248
Demand for a Network Good 248
Monopoly or Competition? 250
The Lock-in Issue 250
summary 253
questions 254
9 Product Quality and Product Variety 257
9.1 Quality 258
Quality under Competition and Monopoly 259
An Application: Suppression of Inventions 263
Cartels and Quality 265
9.2 Variety 266
Product Variety under Monopoly 268
Blending Monopoly and Competition – Monopolistic
Competition 270
summary 275
questions 276
10 Competition Among the Few: Oligopoly and Strategic Behavior 279
10.1 Strategic Behavior: The Theory of Games 280
Patterns of Payoffs 280
An Application: Public Goods – Two-Person versus Multiperson
Prisoners’ Dilemma 282
Pure Strategies 283
Mixed Strategies 286
10.2 Duopoly – Identical Products 288
Quantity Competition 289
Price Competition 293
An Application: “Most-Favored-Customer” Clause 295
10.3 Duopoly – Differentiated Products 297
Quantity Competition 297
Price Competition 298
10.4 Oligopoly, Collusion, and Numbers 300
An Application: The “Kinked” Demand Curve 300
Oligopoly and Numbers 302
summary 304
questions 304
11 Dealing with Uncertainty – The Economics of Risk and Information 307
11.1 Decisions under Uncertainty 308
Expected Gain versus Expected Utility 308
Risk Aversion 309
Risk-Bearing and Insurance 312
11.2 The Value of Information 316
11.3 Asymmetric Information 317
Adverse Selection – The Lemons Problem 317
Conveying Quality through Reputation 321
Do Prices Signal Quality? Information as a Public Good 323
Conveying Information – Advertising 325
11.4 Herd Behavior and Informational Cascades 325
11.5 Copyright, Patents, and Intellectual Property Rights 328
summary 332
questions 334
part four. factor markets and income distribution
12 The Demand for Factor Services 339
12.1 Production and Factor Employment with a Single
Variable Input 340
The Production Function 340
Diminishing Returns 340
From Production Function to Cost Function 343
The Firm’s Demand for a Single Variable Input 345
12.2 Production and Factor Employment with Several
Variable Inputs 349
The Production Function 350
Factor Balance and Factor Employment 355
The Firm’s Demand for Inputs 358
12.3 The Industry’s Demand for Inputs 362
12.4 Monopsony in the Factor Market 364
12.5 An Application: Minimum-Wage Laws 366
summary 371
questions 373
13 Resource Supply and Factor-Market Equilibrium 375
13.1 The Optimum of the Resource-Owner 376
An Application: The Incentive Effects of “Welfare” and Social Security 382
13.2 Personnel Economics: Managerial Applications of
Employment Theory 385
The Principal-Agent Problem 385
Paying by the Piece 386
Signalling 389
13.3 Factor-Market Equilibrium 390
From Individual Supply to Market Supply 390
Demand and Supply Together 391
An Application: Sources of GrowingWage Inequality 392
13.4 Monopolies and Cartels in Factor Supply 395
13.5 The “Functional” Distribution of Income 397
The Traditional Classification: Land, Labor, and Capital 397
Capital, Rate of Return, and Interest 398
13.6 Economic Rent 402
summary 403
questions 404
part five. exchange
14 Exchange, Transaction Costs, and Money 409
14.1 Pure Exchange: The Edgeworth Box 410
14.2 Supply and Demand in Pure Exchange 416
An Application: Market Experiments in Economics 420
14.3 Exchange and Production 423
14.4 Imperfect Markets: Costs of Exchange 430
How Perfect Are Markets? 430
Proportional Transaction Costs 433
Lump-Sum Transaction Costs 437
14.5 The Role of Money 440
Money as Medium of Exchange 440
Money as Temporary Store of Value 442
14.6 An Application: Auctions 443
The English Auction 445
Sealed-Bid Second-Price Auction 445
Sealed-Bid First-Price Auction 445
The Dutch Auction 446
summary 448
questions 449
part six. economics and time
15 The Economics of Time 455
15.1 Present versus Future 456
15.2 Consumption Choices over Time: Pure Exchange 459
Borrowing-Lending Equilibrium with Zero Net Investment 459
An Application: Double Taxation of Saving? 461
15.3 Production and Consumption over Time: Saving and
Investment 464
15.4 Investment Decisions and Project Analysis 468
The Separation Theorem 468
The Present-Value Rule 469
The Rate of Return (ROR) Rule 475
15.5 Real Interest and Monetary Interest: Allowing for Inflation 479
15.6 The Multiplicity of Interest Rates 482
An Application: The Discount Rate for Project Analysis 485
15.7 The Fundamentals of Investment, Saving, and Interest 486
summary 490
questions 491
part seven. political economy
16 Welfare Economics: The Market and the State 497
16.1 Goals of Economic Policy 498
Efficiency versus Equity 498
Utilitarianism 500
Efficiency as the Sum of Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus 500
Efficient Allocations in the Edgeworth Box 501
“Equity” Reconsidered 502
An Application: How to Divide a Cake 504
16.2 The Theorem of the Invisible Hand: The Role of Prices 506
Efficient Consumption 506
Efficient Production 506
Efficient Balance between Production and Consumption 507
16.3 “Market Failures” 508
Monopoly 508
Externalities 508
The Coase Theorem 513
16.4 The Commons: The Consequences of Unrestricted Access 515
16.5 Public Goods 518
Efficient Production and Consumption of Public Goods 518
Voluntary Provision of Nonexcludable Public Goods – Free-Riding 521
An Extension:Weakest-Link versus Best-Shot Models of Public Goods 525
16.6 Appropriative Activity and Rent-Seeking 529
summary 533
questions 534
17 Government, Politics, and Conflict 537
17.1 The Other Side of the Coin: Government Failures 538
Corruption as Government Failure 538
Political Competition and Its Limits 539
Politics and Special Interests 541
17.2 Voting as an Instrument of Control 543
Majority and Minority – “Log-Rolling” 544
The Cycling Paradox 545
The Median-Voter Theorem 546
17.3 Conflict and Cooperation 550
Sources of Cooperation and Conflict 550
Conflict and Game Theory 557
An Application: Should You Pay Ransom? 561
summary 563
questions 564
Answers to Selected Questions 567
Name Index 597
Subject Index 601

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