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《Solaris 10 系统基本管理》(Solaris 10 System Administration Essentials)(Solaris System Engineers)[PDF]

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    出版社Prentice Hall PTR
    发行时间2009年12月03日
    语言英文
  • 时间: 2009/12/16 15:53:23 发布 | 2009/12/17 11:51:33 更新
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中文名Solaris 10 系统基本管理
原名Solaris 10 System Administration Essentials
资源格式PDF
出版社Prentice Hall PTR
书号9780137000098
发行时间2009年12月03日
地区美国
语言英文
简介

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3大企业级的UNIX系统中的一个(Sun Solaris, HP-UX, IBM-AIX)

下载Solaris 10 操作系统
http://cn.sun.com/practice/software/solaris/get.jsp

Solaris是在UNIX的发展过程中逐渐发展起来的。1969年AT&T贝尔实验室开发出了第一套UNIX操作系统,尽管这只是个单用户的操作系统,却标志着UNIX的诞生。UNIX发展的下一个里程碑是在1973年,当时在贝尔实验室的工作人员利用C语言重新编写了UNIX内核程序,这也是为什么C语言总是和UNIX联系在一起的原因。即使在今天,尽管已经有许多其他编程语言可以选择,但大多数UNIX应用仍是采用C语言进行编写的。

到了1975年,伯克利大学发布了它的第一个UNIX软件,这个软件称为BSD。BSD UNIX在UNIX的历史发展中有相当大的影响力,被许多商家采用,成为很多商业UNIX的基础,而Sun公司的Solaris正是在这个BSD UNIX的基础上发展起来的。与此同时,AT&T贝尔实验室也在不断改变他们的商用UNIX版本。直到AT&T贝尔实验室在吸收了BSD UNIX已经有的各种优先特性,并结合其本身特点,推出了UNIX System V版本之后,才形成了BSD UNIX和UNIX System V两大主流UNIX系统。

20世纪80年代初期,UNIX System V仍然主要由AT&T所拥有。但到1993年初,AT&T将开发UNIX系统的实验室(USL)卖给了Novell公司,UNIX即为 Novell所拥有。后来,Novell将自己的UNIX改名为UNIXWare,而将UNIX商标赠送给X/OPEN——一个由众多UNIX厂商组成的联盟,这样这个联盟内的所有成员均可以使用UNIX商标。从此以后,UNIX不再是专有产品了。

System V对于UNIX平台的主要贡献包括:

增强了Bourne shell功能,包括shell函数;
支持STREAMS和TLI网络库;
远程文件共享(RFS);
改善了内存分页;
应用了二进制接口(ABI)。

由于Solaris最初是由伯克利大学的BSD派生出来的,因此,SunOS 4.x(常被称为Solaris1.x)的命令风格与其他的BSD非常相似,只是由于后来改用了System V的版本4(SVR4),才使得SunOS 5.x(也就是Solaris 2.x)发生了变化。
SVR4与BSD UNIX的主要差别可以总结如下:

Root脚本在System V中为/etc/init.d,在BSD中为/etc/rc.d。
默认shell在System V中为Bourne shell,在BSD中为C shell。
文件系统数据库在System V中为/etc/mnttab,在BSD中为/etc/mtab。
内核名称在System V中为/UNIX,在BSD中为/vmUNIX。
打印系统在System V中为lp,在BSD中为lpr。
字符串函数在System V中为memcopy,在BSD中为bcopy。
终端初始化在System V中为/etc/inittab,在BSD中为/etc/ttys。
终端控制在System V中为termio,在BSD中为termios。

而SunOS 5.x也逐渐被Solaris 2.x名称代替,在Solaris 2.6以后,Solaris 7(SunOS 5.7)开始改变它的版本编号方法,它以过去的小版本编号为基础,采用了单一版本号的形式。也就是说,Solaris的版本序号顺序为 2.5,2.6,7,8,9,10。
Sun操作系统版本发展的时间顺序如下:

1971年,第一个UNIX版本发布。
1982年,Sun选择UNIX操作系统用于其第一个工作站。
1983年,SunOS 1.0发布。
1984年,Sun发明NFS技术。
1985年,SunOS 2.0支持NFS技术。
1988年,SunOS 4.0支持其第一个SPARC处理器和使用虚拟内存技术。
1992年,Solaris 2发布,基于UNIX SVR4,并支持其第一款多处理器工作站。
1992年,Solaris 2.1增加支持线程技术。
1993年,Solaris 2.2增加支持对称多处理器技术。
1995年,Solaris 2.5支持UltraSPARC工作站/服务器。
1997年,Solaris 2.6支持1TB大文件。
1998年,Solaris 7采用64位技术,支持Java。
2000年,Solaris 8增加支持安全的企业级Web应用。
2002年,Solaris 9服务提供平台,U5版支持CMT技术,并增加Sun Java企业系统。
2005年,Solaris 10虚拟化OE,增加N1 Grid Container,DTrace等。
2006年,Solaris 10增加了ZFS文件系统。

其中,Solaris 10是最具有里程碑意义的。从此,Solaris走向了开源,代码不再由专门的Sun公司的操作系统专家所编写。也就是说,下一个版本的Solaris将是由开源社区的众多自由软件开发者编写的。




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目录

Contents
Preface xvii
About the Authors xxi
Chapter 1 Installing the Solaris 10 Operating System 1
1.1 Methods to Meet Your Needs 1
1.2 The Basics of Solaris Installation 2
1.2.1 Installing Solaris on a SPARC System 6
1.2.2 Installing Solaris on an x86 System 9
1.3 Solaris JumpStart Installation 13
1.3.1 Setting up a JumpStart Server 13
1.3.2 Creating a Profile Server for Networked Systems 14
1.3.3 Performing a Custom JumpStart Installation 22
1.4 Upgrading a Solaris System 25
1.5 Solaris Live Upgrade 26
Chapter 2 Boot, Service Management, and Shutdown 33
2.1 Boot 33
2.1.1 The Bootloader 33
2.1.2 The Kernel 34
2.1.3 User-Mode Programs 34
2.1.4 GRUB Extensions 35
2.1.5 Modifying Boot Behavior 36
2.1.6 Run Levels 37
2.1.7 Troubleshooting 37
2.2 Service Management Facility 39
2.2.1 enabled 40
2.2.2 state, next_state, and state_time 40
2.2.3 logfile 41
2.2.4 dependency 41
2.2.5 How SMF Interacts with Service Implementations 42
2.2.6 The Service Configuration Facility 44
2.2.7 Health and Troubleshooting 44
2.2.8 Service Manifests 45
2.2.9 Backup and Restore of SCF Data 45
2.3 Shutdown 46
2.3.1 Application-Specific Shutdown 46
2.3.2 Application-Independent Shutdown 46
Chapter 3 Software Management: Packages 47
3.1 Managing Software Packages 47
3.2 What Is a Package? 47
3.2.1 SVR4 Package Content 48
3.2.2 Package Naming Conventions 49
3.3 Tools for Managing Software Packages 49
3.4 Installing or Removing a Software Package with the
pkgadd or pkgrm Command 50
3.5 Using Package Commands to Manage Software Packages 51
3.5.1 How to Install Packages with the pkgadd
Command 51
3.5.2 Adding Frequently Installed Packages to a Spool
Directory 54
3.5.3 Removing Software Packages 56
Chapter 4 Software Management: Patches 59
4.1 Managing Software with Patches 59
4.2 What Is a Patch? 59
4.2.1 Patch Content 60
4.2.2 Patch Numbering 61
4.3 Patch Management Best Practices 61
4.3.1 Proactive Patch Management Strategy 62
4.3.2 Reactive Patch Management Strategy 68
4.3.3 Security Patch Management Strategy 70
4.3.4 Proactive Patching When Installing a New System 71
4.3.5 Identifying Patches for Proactive Patching and
Accessing Patches 73
4.4 Example of Using Solaris Live Upgrade to
Install Patches 75
4.4.1 Overview of Patching with Solaris Live Upgrade 75
4.4.2 Planning for Using Solaris Live Upgrade 77
4.4.3 How to Apply a Patch When Using Solaris Live
Upgrade for the Solaris 10 8/07 Release 79
4.5 Patch Automation Tools 86
4.6 Overview of Patch Types 88
4.7 Patch README Special Instructions 93
4.7.1 When to Patch in Single-User Mode 93
4.7.2 When to Reboot After Applying or Removing a Patch 94
4.7.3 Patch Metadata for Non-Global Zones 95
4.8 Patch Dependencies (Interrelationships) 96
4.8.1 SUNW_REQUIRES Field for Patch Dependencies 96
4.8.2 SUNW_OBSOLETES Field for Patch Accumulation
and Obsolescence 97
4.8.3 SUNW_INCOMPAT Field for Incompatibility 97
Chapter 5 Solaris File Systems 99
5.1 Solaris File System Overview 99
5.1.1 Mounting File Systems 100
5.1.2 Unmounting File Systems 102
5.1.3 Using the /etc/vfstab File 103
5.1.4 Determining a File System Type 104
5.1.5 Monitoring File Systems 105
5.2 UFS File Systems 105
5.2.1 Creating a UFS File System 106
5.2.2 Backing Up and Restoring UFS File Systems 107
5.2.3 Using Quotas to Manage Disk Space 108
5.2.4 Checking File System Integrity 110
5.2.5 Using Access Control Lists 112
5.2.6 Using UFS Logging 113
5.2.7 Using Extended File Attributes 115
5.2.8 Using Multiterabyte UFS File Systems 115
5.2.9 Creating UFS Snapshots 115
5.3 ZFS File System Administration 117
5.3.1 Using Pools and File Systems 118
5.3.2 Backing Up a ZFS File System 120
5.3.3 Using Mirroring and Striping 121
5.3.4 Using RAID-Z 122
5.3.5 Using Copy-on-Write and Snapshots 122
5.3.6 Using File Compression 124
5.3.7 Measuring Performance 124
5.3.8 Expanding a Pool 125
5.3.9 Checking a Pool 126
5.3.10 Replacing a Disk 127
5.4 NFS File System Administration 127
5.4.1 Finding Available NFS File Systems 128
5.4.2 Mounting an NFS File System 129
5.4.3 Unmounting an NFS File System 129
5.4.4 Configuring Automatic File System Sharing 130
5.4.5 Automounting File Systems 130
5.5 Removable Media 133
5.5.1 Using the PCFS File System 135
5.5.2 Using the HSFS File System 136
5.6 Pseudo File System Administration 136
5.6.1 Using Swap Space 136
5.6.2 Using the TMPFS File System 138
5.6.3 Using the Loopback File System 139
Chapter 6 Managing System Processes 141
6.1 Overview 141
6.1.1 State of a Process 143
6.1.2 Process Context 143
6.2 Monitoring the Processes 145
6.2.1 Process Status: ps 146
6.2.2 Grepping for Process: pgrep 149
6.2.3 Process Statistics Summary: prstat 149
6.2.4 Reap a Zombie Process: preap 151
6.2.5 Temporarily Stop a Process: pstop 152
6.2.6 Resuming a Suspended Process: prun 152
6.2.7 Wait for Process Completion: pwait 152
6.2.8 Process Working Directory: pwdx 152
6.2.9 Process Arguments: pargs 152
6.2.10 Process File Table: pfiles 153
6.2.11 Process Libraries: pldd 154
6.2.12 Process Tree: ptree 154
6.2.13 Process Stack: pstack 155
6.2.14 Tracing Process: truss 156
6.3 Controlling the Processes 158
6.3.1 The nice and renice Commands 158
6.3.2 Signals 159
6.4 Process Manager 164
6.5 Scheduling Processes 170
6.5.1 cron Utility 171
6.5.2 The at Command 175
Chapter 7 Fault Management 179
7.1 Overview 179
7.2 Fault Notification 181
7.3 Displaying Faults 182
7.4 Repairing Faults 184
7.5 Managing Fault Management Log Files 184
7.5.1 Automatic Log Rotation 185
7.5.2 Manual Log Rotation 186
7.5.3 Log Rotation Failures 187
7.5.4 Examining Historical Log Files 188
7.6 Managing fmd and fmd Modules 188
7.6.1 Loading and Unloading Modules 189
7.6.2 fmd Statistics 191
7.6.3 Configuration Files 192
7.7 Fault Management Directories 193
7.8 Solaris Fault Management Downloadable Resources 193
7.8.1 Solaris FMA Demo Kit 193
7.8.2 Events Registry 194
Chapter 8 Managing Disks 197
8.1 Hard Disk Drive 197
8.2 Disk Terminology 199
8.3 Disk Device Naming Conventions 200
8.3.1 Specifying the Disk Subdirectory in Commands 202
8.4 Overview of Disk Management 202
8.4.1 Device Driver 202
8.4.2 Disk Labels (VTOC or EFI) 203
8.4.3 Disk Slices 205
8.4.4 Slice Arrangements on Multiple Disks 207
8.4.5 Partition Table 208
8.4.6 format Utility 210
8.4.7 format Menu and Command Descriptions 211
8.4.8 Partition Menu 213
8.4.9 x86: fdisk Menu 214
8.4.10 Analyze Menu 215
8.4.11 Defect Menu 217
8.5 Disk Management Procedures 217
8.5.1 How to Identify the Disks on a System 218
8.5.2 How to Determine If a Disk Is Formatted 218
8.5.3 How to Format a Disk 219
8.5.4 How to Identify a Defective Sector by Performing a
Surface Analysis 221
8.5.5 How to Repair a Defective Sector 222
8.5.6 How to Display the Partition Table or Slice
Information 223
8.5.7 Creating Disk Slices (Partitioning a Disk) and
Labeling a Disk 224
8.5.8 Creating a File System On a Disk 228
8.5.9 Additional Commands to Manage Disks 229
Chapter 9 Managing Devices 235
9.1 Solaris Device Driver Introduction 235
9.2 Analyzing Lack of Device Support 236
9.2.1 Device Does Not Work 236
9.2.2 Obtaining Information About Devices 236
9.2.3 Obtaining Information About Drivers 241
9.2.4 Does the Device Have a Driver? 248
9.2.5 Current Driver Does Not Work 250
9.2.6 Can a Driver for a Similar Device Work? 250
9.3 Installing and Updating Drivers 251
9.3.1 Backing Up Current Functioning Driver Binaries 251
9.3.2 Package Installations 252
9.3.3 Install Time Updates 252
9.3.4 Manual Driver Binary Installation 253
9.3.5 Adding a Device Driver to a Net Installation Image 256
9.3.6 Adding a Device Driver to a CD/DVD
Installation Image 262
9.3.7 Swapping Disks 263
9.4 When Drivers Hang or Panic the System 266
9.4.1 Device Driver Causes the System to Hang 266
9.4.2 Device Driver Causes the System to Panic 268
9.4.3 Device Driver Degrades System Performance 269
9.5 Driver Administration Commands and Files 270
9.5.1 Driver Administration Command Summary 270
9.5.2 Driver Administration File Summary 272
Chapter 10 Solaris Networking 275
10.1 Introduction to Network Configuration 275
10.1.1 Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Stack 275
10.1.2 Configuring the Network as Superuser 277
10.2 Setting Up a Network 277
10.2.1 Components of the XYZ, Inc. Network 277
10.2.2 Configuring the Sales Domain 280
10.2.3 Configuring the Accounting Domain 283
10.2.4 Configuring the Multihomed Host 288
10.2.5 Setting Up a System for Static Routing 296
10.2.6 Configuring the Corporate Domain 300
10.2.7 Testing the Network Configuration 302
10.3 Monitoring Network Performance 304
10.3.1 dladm Command 304
10.3.2 ifconfig Command 305
10.3.3 netstat Command 305
10.3.4 snoop Command 307
10.3.5 traceroute Command 308
Chapter 11 Solaris User Management 309
11.1 Solaris Users, Groups, and Roles 309
11.1.1 File System Object Permissions 310
11.1.2 User Account Components 312
11.1.3 User Management Tools 313
11.1.4 User Management Files 313
11.2 Managing Users and Groups 314
11.2.1 Starting the Solaris Management Console 314
11.2.2 Adding a Group and a User to Local Files 315
11.2.3 Adding a Group and a User to an NIS Domain 317
11.3 Managing Roles 318
11.3.1 Changing root from a User to a Role 318
11.3.2 Viewing the List of Roles 319
11.3.3 Assigning a Role to a Local User 319
Chapter 12 Solaris Zones 321
12.1 Overview 321
12.2 How Zones Work 323
12.3 Branded Zones 324
12.4 Network Interfaces in Zones 324
12.5 Devices in Zones 325
12.6 Packages and Patches in a Zones Environment 325
12.7 Administering Zones 326
12.7.1 Zone Configuration 327
12.7.2 Viewing a Zone Configuration 331
12.7.3 Zone Installation and Booting 331
12.7.4 Zone Login Using the zlogin Command 332
12.8 Halting, Uninstalling, Moving, and Cloning Zones 333
12.9 Migrating a Zone to a New System 334
12.10 Deleting a Zone 336
12.11 Listing the Zones on a System 336
12.12 Zones Usage Examples 337
12.12.1 Adding a Dedicated Device to a Non-Global Zone 337
12.12.2 How to Export Home Directories in the Global Zone
into a Non-Global Zone 337
12.12.3 Altering Privileges in a Non-Global Zone 337
12.12.4 Checking the Status of SMF Services 338
12.12.5 Modifying CPU, Swap, and Locked Memory Caps
in Zones 338
12.12.6 Using the Dtrace Program in a Non-Global Zone 339
Chapter 13 Using Naming Services 341
13.1 Using Naming Services (DNS, NIS, AND LDAP) 341
13.1.1 Naming Service Cache Daemon (nscd) 342
13.1.2 DNS Naming Services 342
13.1.3 NIS Naming Services 342
13.1.4 LDAP Naming Services 343
13.1.5 Organizational Use of Naming Services 343
13.1.6 Network Database Sources 344
13.2 Name Service Switch File 347
13.2.1 Configuring the Name Service Switch File 347
13.2.2 Database Status and Actions 349
13.3 DNS Setup and Configuration 350
13.3.1 Resolver Files 350
13.3.2 Steps DNS Clients Use to Resolve Names 350
13.4 NIS Setup and Configuration 351
13.4.1 Setting Up NIS Clients 351
13.4.2 Working with NIS Maps 352
13.5 LDAP Setup and Configuration 356
13.5.1 Initializing a Client Using Per-User Credentials 357
13.5.2 Configuring an LDAP Client 359
13.5.3 Using Profiles to Initialize an LDAP Client 362
13.5.4 Using Proxy Credentials to Initialize an LDAP Client 362
13.5.5 Initializing an LDAP Client Manually 363
13.5.6 Modifying a Manual LDAP Client Configuration 363
13.5.7 Troubleshooting LDAP Client Configuration 364
13.5.8 Uninitializing an LDAP Client 364
13.5.9 Initializing the Native LDAP Client 364
13.5.10 LDAP API Entry Listings 368
13.5.11 Troubleshooting Name Service Information 368
Chapter 14 Solaris Print Administration 369
14.1 Overview of the Solaris Printing Architecture 369
14.2 Key Concepts 370
14.2.1 Printer Categories (Local and Remote Printers) 370
14.2.2 Printer Connections (Directly Attached and Network Attached) 370
14.2.3 Description of a Print Server and a Print Client 371
14.3 Solaris Printing Tools and Services 371
14.3.1 Solaris Print Manager 371
14.3.2 LP Print Service 371
14.3.3 PostScript Printer Definitions File Manager 372
14.4 Network Protocols 372
14.4.1 Berkeley Software Distribution Protocol 372
14.4.2 Transmission Control Protocol 372
14.4.3 Internet Printing Protocol 373
14.4.4 Server Message Block Protocol 373
14. 5 Planning for Printer Setup 373
14. 5.1 Print Server Requirements 373
14. 5.2 Locating Information About Supported Printers 374
14. 5.3 Locating Information About Available PPD Files 375
14. 5.4 Adding a New PPD File to the System 375
14. 5.5 Adding Printers in a Naming Service 377
14. 5.6 Printer Support in the Naming Service Switch 377
14. 5.7 Enabling Network Listening Services 378
14.6 Setting Up Printers with Solaris Printer Manager 379
14.6.1 Assigning Printer Definitions 379
14.6.2 Starting Solaris Print Manager 380
14.6.3 Setting Up a New Directly Attached Printer With Solaris Print Manager 381
14.6.4 Setting Up a New Network-Attached Printer with Solaris Print Manager 381
14.7 Setting Up a Printer on a Print Client with Solaris Print Manager 385
14.7.1 Adding Printer Access With Solaris Print Manager 385
14.8 Administering Printers by Using LP Print Commands 385
14.8.1 Frequently Used LP Print Commands 386
14.8.2 Using the lpstat Command 386
14.8.3 Disabling and Enabling Printers 387
14.8.4 Accepting or Rejecting Print Requests 387
14.8.5 Canceling a Print Request 388
14.8.6 Moving Print Requests from One Printer to Another Printer 389
14.8.7 Deleting a Printer 390
14.9 Troubleshooting Printing Problems 392
14.9.1 Troubleshooting No Output (Nothing Prints) 392
14.9.2 Checking That the Print Scheduler Is Running 393
14.9.3 Debugging Printing Problems 393
14.9.4 Checking the Printer Network Connections 394
Index 395

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