演奏乐团：Wiener Philharmoniker 维也纳爱乐乐团
演奏指挥：Riccardo Muti 里卡多·穆蒂
The Strauss Family and the Vienna Philharmonic go together as readily as the waltz goes with Vienna – certainly in the minds of those around the world who year after year regard the annual television transmission of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra’s New Year’s Concert from Vienna’s Musikverein as an unmissable and joyful start to another year.
The orchestra’s association with the celebrated family of waltz composers goes back almost a century and a quarter. It was on the evening of 22 April 1873 that, for a Court Opera Ball in the Grobe Musikvereinssaal, Johann Strauss conducted the Vienna court opera orchestra – whose players also constituted the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra - in the first performance of his celebrated waltz Wiener Blut. The personal relationship lasted over 25 years until 22 May 1899 when, less than two weeks before his death, Johann conducted the orchestra for the last time in the overture to Die Fledermaus at a performance in the Court Opera. In 1925, the Vienna Philharmonic celebrated the centenary of Johann Strauss’s Birth with two commemorative concerts, and on 21 December 1939 the distinguished conductor Clemens Krauss directed a turn-of-the-year Strauss concert for the very first time. The first true New Year’s Concert was conducted by Josef Krips on 1 January 1946, since when a concert of music by the Strauss Family and their Viennese dance contemporaries- usually shadowed by an LP or CD recording – has been an annual fixture.
Until his sudden death in 1954 Clemens Krauss was the regular conductor. Then for 25 years fromm 1955 to 1979 the concert was directed by the orchestra’s leader, Willi Boskovsky, directing the orchestra in Johann Strauss’s own fashion – violin in hand. That trandition was then followed by Lorin Maazel – virtuoso violinist as well as conductor. More recently the concerts have been conducted by a variety of special guest conductors, including Herber Von Karajan, Carlos Kleiber, Zubin Mehta, Claudio Abbado and Riccardo Muti – the last-named given the honour again in 1997 following his triumphant appearance in 1993.
The programme3 of the 1997 concert combines generally less familiar music by the Strauss family with items by two of their Viennese light music contemporaries. It begins appropriately with music by Johann Strauss Jr. , the waltz King. His Motors Waltz of 1862 is one of the works with engineering titles that he composed for the annual Carnival ball of the technical students of Vienna University. In contrasting tempo, his polka “There’s only one imperial city, there’s only one Vienna. 1864” is one of his many tributes to his native city and has a brief quotation of Haydn’s Imperial Hymn in the coda. It was first performed not in Vienna but in Pavlovsk in Russia on one of Strauss’s summer seasons as conductor at the Vauxhall entertainment centre at the end of a short railway line from st Petersburg.
Johann’s Patronesses polka of 1864 is another piece composed for a Vienna Carnival Ball, while his Court Ball Dances Waltz was composed, as its title suggests, for a Court Ball at Vienna’s Hofburg Palace. That was in 1865, two years after Strauss was appointed to the official Habsburg post of ‘Imperial and Royal Court Ball Music Director’, and the waltz shows Strauss at his most gracious and haunting. No less endearing is the Flash Polka, which carries a dedication to his first wife, the singer Jetty Treffz, and which was composed in 1862, the year of their marriage. In faster tempo, the Bayadere quick polka, 1871, is one of the dances that Strauss compiled on themes from his first operetta Indigo and the Forty Thieves, an Arabian Nights tale.
The appropriately joyous waltz Enjoy your life was composed for a festival ball of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde to mark no less an occasion than the opening of the Musikverein- the very building where the annual New Year’s Concert is held – in 1870. The more gentle New Pizzicato Polka of 1892 evokes the spirit of the celebrated Pizzicato Polka composed jointly by Johann and Joseph Strauss over twenty years earlier. This later example was subsequently used as a dance entr’acte in Strauss’s operetta Princess Ninetta. The shimmering Fata Morgana Polka Mazurka, 1869 was composed for a Carnival ball of the Artists’ Society ‘Hesperus’, while the sabre-ratting Russian March, 1886 was dedicated to Tsar Alexander Ⅲ and was one of the products of the very last of Strauss’s many visits to Russia.
Joseph Strauss was a more highly strung individual, who nevertheless composed his share of joyous, carefree pieces, as witness the Career quick polka. This was first performed at a summer concert in Vienna’s Volksgarten in 1866. Nothing reflects Joseph’s sensitive nature better than the tenderly expressive and gracefully-scoured Woman’s Heart polka Mazurka, which again was composed for a summer concert in the Volksgarten. His waltz Dynamiden was composed for the Vienna Industrial Society’s Carnival Ball in 1865 and has become familiar mostly because of its distinctive opening figure, which seems to have been the model for Baron Ochs’s favorite waltz in the opera Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss – no relation of the Viennese walz family. Back in forthright mood, joseph’s Forwards! Quick polka is a work he introduced at Pavlovsk in 1862 when he replaced his brother Johann to enable the latter to return to Vienna for his marriage.
Of the two composers from outside the family, Franz von Suppe no more needs any instoduction than does his famous Light Cavalry overture. With its celebrated depiction of cavalry galloping over the Hungarian plains, it comes from a two-act operetta of 1866 and is one of the most popular of all Suppe’s rousing overtures. Joseph Hellmesberger may be less familiar today; but his family was a highly distinguished one in nineteenth-century Viennese musical circles. His father was leader of the Court Opera Orchestra and also of a celebrated string quartet, while the younger Joseph not only followed in his father’s footsteps but in 1901 succeeded Gustav Mahler as conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic. He composed numerous operettas, as well as several ballets for the court opera. Among the latter was The Transmogrified Cat, from which comes the Light-Footed quick polka.
No conductor of a Vienna New Year’s Concert is allowed to depart without satisfying the audience’s demang for encores. The title of Joseph Strauss’s 1868 quick-polka Sent in provides the perfect excuse for some celebratory token of the occasion to be brought on to the platform, while two other works have become too much unofficial anthems of Vienna to be omitted. The distinctive hushed introduction of the younger Johann Strauss’s waltz ‘By the beautiful Blue Danube’ of 1867 always brings a gasp of recognition from the audience. In the case of his father Johann the elder, the founder of the dynasty, it is his rhythmic Radetzky Marsch, composed in 1848 in honour of Field-Marshal Count Radetzky von Radetz’s vicory in the battle of Custozza, that sets the feet tapping and hands clapping in an expression of universal joy and brotherhood that so aptly epitomizes the occasion.
1. Motoren Walzer. Op265 Johann Strauss 发动机圆舞曲
2. ’S gibt nur Kaiserstadt，’S gibt nur Wien! Polka schnell. Op291 Johann Strauss 只有帝国之都，只有维也纳快速波尔卡
3. Carriere Polka schnell. Op200 Josef Strauss
4. Frauenherz Polka Mazurka. Op166 Josef Strauss 女人心玛祖卡波尔卡
5. Hofballtänze Walzer. Op298 Johann Strauss 宫廷舞会圆舞曲
6. Bluette Polka francaise. Op271 Johann Strauss 法兰西舞曲小蓝花波尔卡
7. Die Bajadere Polka schnell. Op351 Johann Strauss 印度神朝舞姬快速波尔卡
8. Die Leichte Kavallerie Overture. Franz Von Supper 《轻骑兵》序曲
9. Freut euch des Lebens! Walzer. Op340 Johann Strauss 享受生活圆舞曲
10. Patonessen Polka francaise. Op286 Johann Strauss 法兰西舞曲女赞助人波尔卡
11. Leichtfüss Polka schnell. Josef HellmesbergerⅠ舞步轻盈快速波尔卡
12. Neue Pizzcato Polka. Op449 Johann Strauss 新拨弦波尔卡
13. Fata Morgana Polka Mazurka. Op330 Johann Strauss 海市蜃楼玛祖卡波尔卡
14．Russischer Marsch. Op426 Johann Strauss 俄罗斯人进行曲
15. Dynamiden Walzer. Op173 Josef Strauss 生机勃勃圆舞曲
16. Vorwärts! Polka schnell. Op127 Josef Strauss 前进快速波尔卡
17. Eingesendet Polka schnell. Op240 Josef Strauss 寄信快速波尔卡
18. An der schonen Blauen Donau Walzer. Op314 Johann Strauss 在美丽的蓝色多瑙河边圆舞曲
19．Radetzky Marsch. Op228 Johann StraussⅠ 拉德茨基进行曲