演奏：Anne Queffelec, Catherine Collard
发行公司：EMI Records Ltd/Virgin Classics
Erik Satie (1866-1925)法国作曲家，六人团的前驱。萨蒂1884年出版第一首钢琴曲时，竟编为OP.62。1890年结识德彪西，1891年参加天.主.教的玄.宗.教.派，为该教.派创作数部作品。此后不久就对作曲厌.倦。他1905年进圣.咏学院师从丹弟和鲁塞尔。《游.行（PARADE）》是他的著名作品，这部作品受贾吉列夫之约，为当时的俄罗斯芭蕾舞团而作，作于1916年，由科克托撰脚本，马辛编舞，毕加索设计舞美。这部作品讽.刺一个在城市街头表演的流动剧团，角色包括一名中国魔.术师，两名杂技演员，一名美.国女郎，三名领班。作品中使用爵士乐节奏，并在配器中使用打字机、轮船汽笛和警.报器的声响。
萨蒂在法国音乐史上之所以重要，在于他引导了法国一代作曲家摆脱处于瓦格纳影响下的印象主.义。他比较早地使用了先锋派的作曲方法。他创造的“陈设音乐”，是指各演奏者散处于舞台的不同的位置，以不同的拍子演奏不同乐曲而组合成的音乐。他所作的钢琴曲《烦.恼》，是以一段乐曲反复演奏840次而成，演奏一遍需要18小时40分钟。这部《直视和斜视的东西（Choses Vues a droit et a gauche）》，为小提琴和钢琴而作，作于1941年。
Satie wrote underneath his self portrait :
"I have come into the world very young into an era very old."
This must have been the feeling of many struggling young modern artists of his time.
1. HIS LIFE
Alfred Erik Leslie Satie was born in Honfleur (Normandy) in 1866. He died in Paris in 1925, aged 59. His mother was Scottish and his father was a ship broker.
Satie started playing the piano at age 7. At 17 he spent a year at the Paris Conservatory.
At age 40, already an accomplished musician, he entered the Schola Cantorum. Here he studied counterpoint and orchestration with Albert Roussel and Vincent D'Indy. After three years he received a Diploma marked "tres bien" (very good).
Satie was a composer who feared no man, but always did what was right in his own eyes. He was an exponent of several important trends in the 20th Century composition including bitonality, polytonality, Jazz and non-triadic harmony.
Erik Satie was one of music's great originals, both personally (an eccentric) and artistically.
From his one-room flat in a working class suburb in Paris, he exercised a remarkable influence over a generation of composers who were seeking to escape the dominance of Richard Wagner.
His simplicity, innovative harmonies, freedom of form and mastery of musical understatement made a strong impression on composers like Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel and later younger composers such as Francis Poulenc, Darius Milhaud and John Cage.
His strange sparse scores, often written without bar lines in red ink are peppered with whimsical instructions : "Light as an egg", "Here comes the lantern", "Open your head", "Muffle the sound", "With astonishment", "Work it out yourself", etc.
Satie's early interest in Mediaeval music shows in the simple plainsong like harmonies of his famous 'Gymnopédies' and 'Gnossiennes'.
In the 1890s he became interested in, and the official composer for, the religio-mystic-occult sect of Rosicrusianism which also had a strong Mediaeval leaning.
He was a close friend of Claude Debussy, and during World War 1 also befriended Cocteau, Diaghilev and Pablo Picasso. This association with the Cubists resulted in the ballet 'Parade' which he wrote in collaboration with Cocteau and Picasso.
An eccentric and humorist, he was not well accepted by the general public of his time, despite efforts by Debussy and Ravel to promote his works.
During the past 20 years his work has received worldwide appreciation and the recognition of his importance he so truly deserves.
2. SATIE the ECCENTRIC
I keep reading and hearing new anecdotes about Satie's eccentricities. Here are a few :
• In his one-room apartment Satie had two pianos. One placed on top of the other, their pedals interconnected.
• His room must have been pretty crowded, for it also contained his collection of over 100 umbrellas !
• Satie once bought 12 grey velvet suits at the same time. He used one suit at a time until it was worn out, then he put on a new one.
When he died, there were 6 suits left in his room, along with his 100 umbrellas.
• When Satie was criticised for writing music without form, he immediately composed "Trois Morceaux en forme de poire" (Three Pear-shaped Pieces. They are piano duets).
• Satie's eccentricity lives on !
His 180 notes long composition Vexations, directed to be repeated 840 times, was recorded in 1963 in New York. It took a relay team of 10 pianists over eighteen hours to perform. The longest piece ever written.
Satie about himself :
• Before writing a work I walk around it several times accompanied by myself.
• For a long time I have subscribed to a fashion magazine.
I wear white socks and white vest, along with a velvet coat, soft felt hat and flowing tie (which is partially hidden by my beard), and on my nose I wear my pince-nez of course.
• My expression is very serious. When I laugh, it is unintentional and I always apologies, very politely.
• I breath carefully (a little at a time), and dance very rarely. When walking, I hold my ribs and look steadily behind me.
• My only nourishment consists of food that is white (I spare you the details for it sounds revolting - MF.)
• My doctor has always told me to smoke (cigarettes of course). He even explains himself : "Smoke, my friend. Otherwise someone else will smoke in your place."
• 1866 - Born in Honfleur (Normandy).
• 1873 - starts learning the piano.
• 1883 - enters the Paris Conservatory for one year.
• 1883 - 1890 - His Early Period.
Very interested in Mediaeval music, especially the Plainsong.
Satie was a resident of Montmartre (until 1898) and a 'regular' at the Auberge du Clou where he met Debussy for the first time.
He was rather poor especially in these early years, and worked as a Cafe pianist in Montmartre. Works from this Period include :
• Ogives 1886, probably his first well known work.
• Trois Sarabandes 1887. In 3/4 time written with bar lines. The 2nd dedicated to Maurice Ravel (Ref.1, 2, 6).
• Trois Gymnopédies 1888. Also in 3/4. Probably inspired by a decoration on a Greek vase. The 1st and 3rd are his best known works today (Ref. 1, 2, 6, 7).
Chord analysis : Gymnopédie No.1 - Gymnopédie No.2 - Gymnopédie No.3
• Six Gnossiennes 1889 - 1893. Inspired by the excavations of the great palaces at Knossos on the Island of Crete (Ref. 1, 2, 6)
Satie now abandons bar lines and time signatures altogether (until 1917), but the Gnossiennes have a basic 4/4 tempo. He also starts using humoristic directions to the performer on his scores.
• 1891 - 1895 - Satie becomes the official composer for the religio-mystic-occult sect of Rosicrusianism, which had a strong Mediaeval leaning. Compositions for this sect include :
• Prelude pour la porte heroique du ciel 1894. Composed for a Drama "esoterique" by Jules Bois. (Ref. 1)
• Messe des Pauvres 1895.
Later compositions, after leaving the sect :
• Pieces Froids 1897. Consist of two groups of 3 compositions. (Ref. 1)
• 1898 - Satie leaves Paris, and settles in a modest room (he nicknamed 'Notre Dame de Basses') in Arcueil where he lives until his death.
• 1900 - Satie produced several first rate cafe songs and music hall pieces, which include
• Je te veux - a graceful French waltz
• Le Piccadilly - with a strong Scott Joplin ragtime flavour (Ref.6).
• 1905 - 1908 - Satie enters the Schola Cantorum.
• 1909 - 1914 - His 'Humoristic Period', with :
• Veritables Preludes Flasques (for a dog) 1912. Three short pieces.(Ref. 1)
• Trois morceaux en forme de Poire "Three Pear shaped pieces" which he wrote in response to criticism from the establishment that there was no form to his compositions. (Ref. 6)
• Descriptions Automatiques 1913. Three short pieces. They contain parodies on existing popular songs.
Perhaps a product of the Dadaist technique of artistic creation through "ecriture automatique". This "automatic writing" occurs for example when doodling subconsciously on a note pad during a telephone conversation. (Ref. 1)
• Vieux Sequins et Vieilles Cuirasses 1913 ('Old Sequins and Breat-plates').
• Embryons Desséchés 1913 ('Dried up Embryos') Once again consisting of three pieces.(Ref. 1)
• Sports et Divertissements 1914. Twenty Musical accompaniments to drawings by the then fashionable artist Charles Martin.
Here the illustration on the original front cover (shown with kind permission of Dover Publications , New York, see Ref.3) :
All Satie's scores for this publication are handwritten by himself, with numerous explanations and comments. Publication was delayed due to the War until 1925, when a unique Limited Edition of only 900 copies was printed. (Ref. 3)
• 1914 - 1924 - His War and Post war Period.
• Avant Dernieres Pensées 1915. Three pieces. All three are based on simple repeated ostinato patterns (No.1 in the left hand, the other two with right hand patterns.). The 1st piece is dedicated to Debussy. (Ref. 1)
• Parade 1917. Satie collaborated with the Cubists Jean Cocteau and Picasso on the ballet 'Parade'.
Most of Satie's compositions consist of three pieces, representing three different viewpoints of a single musical concept. This is very similar to the approach used by the Cubist painters.
Parade created a scandal which propelled Satie finally to centre stage and stardom. From here on he was regarded as one of the instigators of neoclassicism. He became the godfather of Les Six and later the School of Arcueil.
• Sonatine Bureaucratique 1917. Three pieces. Satie starts using bar lines and Time signatures again. (Ref. 1, 6)
• Nocturnes 1919. Five pieces (a 6th was planned but not finished. (Ref. 1)
• Menuet 1920.
• Relache a ballet, with its accompanying film score for Cinema (1924) are probably his last works.
Other famous composition (for which I have no date) include Socrate - Mercure - Musique d'Ameublement
Quote From http://www.jazclass.aust.com/satie.htm
01.Gnossienne No. 1
02.Gnossienne No. 2
03.Gnossienne No. 3
04.Gnossienne No. 4
05.Gnossienne No. 5
06.Gnossienne No. 6
07.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - Maniere de commencement
08.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - Prolongation du meme
09.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - Morceaux I
10.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - Morceaux II
11.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - Morceaux III
12.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - En plus
13.Trois morceaux en forme de poire - Redite
17.Descriptions automatiques - I Sur un vaisseau
18.Descriptions automatiques - II Sur une lanterne
19.Descriptions automatiques - III Sur un casque
20.Pieces froides - No. 1 Aire a faire fuir - I D'une maniere
21.Pieces froides - No.1 Aire a faire fuir - II Modestement
22.Pieces froides - No. 1 Aire a faire fuir - III S'inviter
23.Pieces froides - No. 2 Danses de travers - I En y regardant
24.Pieces froides - No. 2 Danses de travers - II Passer
25.Pieces froides - No. 2 Danses de travers - III Encore
26.Heures seculaires et instantanees - I Obstacles venimeux
27.Heures seculaires et instantanees - II Crespuscule Matinal
28.Heures seculaires et instantanees - III Affolements granitiqu
29.Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses - I Chez le marchand d'or
30.Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses - II Danse cuirassee
31.Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses - III La defaite des Cimb
32.Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses - Je te veux
33.Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses - Prelude de la Porte he